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Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

5. Contract IV: discharge of contract and remedies for breach  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on contract law. It discusses the discharge of contracts and the remedies for breach of contract where one of the parties has failed in their contractual obligations. Contracts can be discharged through performance, agreement, frustration, or breach. In the event of frustration, the parties can establish their own remedies or they can rely on the provisions developed through the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943. Remedies have been established through the common law and equity. Damages are the primary remedy in most cases, but equitable remedies include specific performance, injunctions, and rectification.

Book

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

Jill Poole, James Devenney, and Adam Shaw-Mellors

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Contract Law Concentrate contains a wealth of information on the field of contract law to aid with revision and understanding the elements of the contract law syllabus. It looks specifically at the components of agreement, enforceability criteria comprising intention to create legal relations, consideration, and the doctrine of promissory estoppel. It also focuses on some problems associated with reaching agreement, such as whether the terms are sufficiently certain, and mistakes which prevent agreement. The doctrine of privity determines who has the ability to enforce the contract and whether a third party can take the intended benefit of a contract. Contract Law Concentrate focuses on the terms (or promises) of the contract and breach of contract when those promises are broken. It also examines exemption clauses and unfair contract terms. Next it looks at remedies for the breach of contract. It then turns to contractual impossibility and risk where the default rules of common mistake (initial impossibility) and frustration (subsequent impossibility) will determine the parties’ positions in the absence of party allocation. Finally, it outlines contractual remedies for actionable misrepresentations and looks briefly at the common law doctrine of duress and the equitable doctrine of undue influence.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

5. Terms and breach of contract  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses how to identify the contractual obligations assumed by the parties in their contract, distinguishing terms (promises) and representations (non-promissory inducements to contract), and identifying the express and implied terms. It also looks at standards of performance, how to identify broken promises as a prelude to considering the remedies for breach of contract, and whether it is possible to opt not to continue to perform further contractual obligations following the other party’s breach.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Concentrate

6. Trade secrets, confidential information, and the protection of private information  

This chapter focuses on the law of breach of confidence, which protects trade secrets and privacy. It is judge-made law, with its origins in equity. The action for breach of confidence now resembles a common law cause of action, but its equitable basis is still evident in the flexibility and discretion the judges adopt in deciding cases. The Human Rights Act 1998 required the courts to implement the right to private and family life. The courts have done this, in cases concerning private information, by extending the law to protect privacy where the information concerned was not secret. This is now regarded as a separate branch of the law. Special considerations also apply in relation to the duties employees owe to their employer both during and after their employment. There is a defence to an action for breach of confidence where publication is in the public interest.

Book

Cover Tort Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Having begun with a consideration of the meaning of tort and the context of the ‘tort system’, Tort Law Concentrate covers the key elements of negligence: duty of care, breach of duty, and causation. Economic loss and psychiatric injury are specifically discussed. The book also explains the intentional torts: trespass to the person and to land as well as the tort in Wilkinson v Downton are covered, as is product liability. The family of nuisance torts, with their importance for environmental control are included, as is the key issue of remedies. This new edition includes coverage of recent case law, such as Barclays Bank plc v Various Claimants (2020) and Lachaux v Independent Print (2019). This edition has been fully updated in light of developments in the law, including the continuing impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

14. Mixed topic questions  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions which cover a mixture of topics. The questions require you to cover a range of material covered in your module. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through a combination of topics that may typically be examined together in an employment law question. Guidance is given on how best to approach mixed questions including the benefits of not viewing topics in isolation and how best to demonstrate the range and depth of knowledge required in a mixed topic question.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

10. Remedies of the buyer  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the various remedies that are available to a buyer under a contract of sale of goods where the seller is in breach of the sales contract. It considers the regime of remedies introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and discusses a range of remedies such as rejecting the goods, suing for non-delivery or late delivery of the goods, suing for damages following the seller’s breach of warranty, requiring the seller to repair or replace the goods, claiming from the seller a reduction in the price, or rescinding the contract. The chapter then explains the difference between breach of condition of the contract and breach of warranty.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Concentrate

6. Breach of duty  

The standard of care

This chapter discusses the law on standard of care and breach of duty. To establish that the duty of care has been breached, the standard of care must first be found and then it must be decided if that standard was reached in the circumstances. The general standard of care is objective: the ‘reasonable person’ standard. Variations in the standard of care regarding children and the more skilled or professional are discussed, as are those pertaining to sport and the medical profession. Proof of breach must be established by the claimant on the balance of probabilities; occasionally with the benefit of the evidential tool of res ipsa loquitur.

Chapter

Cover International Law Concentrate

13. International criminal law  

This chapter examines the fundamental concepts and notions of international criminal law, which is linked to other key areas of international law, particularly human rights, international humanitarian law, immunities, and jurisdiction. In particular, there is a focus on the concept of individual criminal responsibility under international law. The four core crimes are considered; namely, genocide, crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and the crime of aggression. Moreover, attention is paid to two unique forms of participation in international crimes, namely, command responsibility and joint criminal enterprise. Finally, the chapter addresses enforcement of international criminal law, particularly through international criminal tribunals, with an emphasis on the International Criminal Court (ICC).

Chapter

Cover International Law Concentrate

3. The law of treaties  

This chapter examines the rules of international law governing the birth, the life, and the death of treaties. Treaties, a formal source of international law, are agreements in written form between States or international organizations that are subject to international law. A treaty falls under the definition of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT), no matter what form or title it may have. The most important factor is that it sets out obligations or entitlements under international law. The VCLT enumerates the rules governing the ‘birth’, ie the steps from the negotiation until the entry into force of the treaty; the ‘life’, ie the interpretation and application of the treaty; and its ‘demise’, ie its termination. The two fundamental tenets are, on the one hand, the principle ‘pacta sunt servanda’ and, on the other, the principle of contractual freedom of the parties.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

6. Statutory employment protection and related contractual issues  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about statutory employment protection and related contractual issues. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of statutory employment protection including eligibility requirements for the right not to be unfairly dismissed, the right to written reasons for dismissal, statutory minimum notice periods, the right to be accompanied to disciplinary hearings, and the ACAS Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

8. Variation, breach, and termination of employment  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses variations of terms and conditions of employment. Theoretically, neither employer nor employee can unilaterally alter the terms and conditions of employment. A unilateral variation that is not accepted will constitute a breach and, if serious, could amount to a repudiation of the contract. A repudiation does not automatically terminate a contract of employment. In order to justify summary dismissal, the employee must be in breach of an important express or implied term of the contract.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Equity and Trusts

13. Breach of Trust  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans, suggested answers, and author commentary. This book offers advice on what to expect in exams and how best to prepare. This chapter covers questions on breach of trusts.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law

11. Damages  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and other features. The common law places great emphasis on damages as the primary remedy for breach of contract, reinforced by the fact that although a victim of a breach may seek specific performance or an injunction, such orders are equitable in nature and therefore discretionary. In claiming damages, the victim of a breach will need to establish that: the claimed method for assessing damages is appropriate (measure); the damages are not too remote (remoteness); if relevant, compensation for inconvenience and/or disappointment caused by the breach is recoverable (non-pecuniary losses); the losses could not have been reasonably mitigated (mitigation); and the recoverable losses have been properly quantified (quantification). Separately, the validity of any agreed damages clause will need to be determined.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law

6. Misrepresentation  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and other features. Misrepresentation is defined as a false statement of fact, made pre-contractually, which is intended to induce the representee to enter into a contract and which has that effect. If an actionable misrepresentation is found to exist a court will then need to consider the available remedies. This chapter considers the following issues relevant to answering any problem question on misrepresentation. Has there been a false statement of fact? Is there evidence of inducement? What type of misrepresentation has potentially been made? What remedies are potentially available? Has liability for misrepresentation been effectively excluded? Has there been a breach of contract?

Book

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law aims to provide the skills for success in exams in this area of law. It starts off by looking at negligence in terms of duty of care, breach of duty and causation and remoteness of damage. It then looks at employers’ liability and vicarious liability. It also considers product and occupiers liabilities. It examines intentional torts. It looks at the case Rylands v Fletcher. General defences and damages are also considered. Finally, it provides mix topic questions and looks at coursework assessments.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

13. Mixed-topic Questions  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter presents mixed-topic questions on tort law. In order to answer them fully, students are required to blend their knowledge of the law of tort. They will be able to assess their knowledge on: the purpose of the law of tort; negligence—duty of care, breach, causation, economic loss; remedies; and vicarious liability. Each question is accompanied by a diagram answer plan and suggested answers. Tips for getting extra marks and online resources are also provided.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

3. Negligence II: Breach of Duty  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses negligence in terms of breach of duty. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: the concept of duty of care in negligence; the objective standard of care: the ‘reasonable person’ and factors relevant to the standard of care; variations of the objective standard: children, emergency situations, sporting events, and skilled persons ‘professing to have a special skill’; and res ipsa loquitur.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

5. Employers’ Liability and Vicarious Liability  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the law on employers’ liability and vicarious liability. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: tort of negligence; statutory duties, and the effect of breach of statutory duty; the Employers’ Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969; vicarious liability, and specifically The Catholic Child Welfare Society and others v Various Claimants and The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools [2012] UKSC 56; and defences to negligence.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Public Law

9. Freedom of expression  

The Q&A series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each chapter includes typical questions, diagram problem and essay answer plans, suggested answers, notes of caution, tips on obtaining extra marks, the key debates on each topic, and suggestions on further reading. This chapter moves on from the previous one to examine the freedom of expression. Under common law, freedom of speech is guaranteed unless the speaker breaks the law, but this is now reinforced by the right of free expression under the European Convention on Human Rights. The questions here deal with issues such as obscenity law and contempt of court; the Official Secrets Act; freedom of information; data protection; breach of confidence; and whether there is a right of privacy in English law.