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Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

9. Passing of the property in the goods as between seller and buyer  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter examines the concept of the passing of the property in goods as between seller and buyer which has significance for many purposes in law. It discusses why the matter is important, before going on to cover the rules for determining when the property passes as it is plainly a matter of the greatest importance to identify the point at which it occurs. The chapter goes on to discuss the statutory provisions relating to perishing of specific goods, how the passing of property is related to acceptance or rejection of goods, the risk involved in the passing of property, and the frustration of sale of goods contracts.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

17. The remedies of the buyer  

This chapter sets out the remedies available to the buyer under a contract of sale. Before the Sale and Supply of Goods to Consumers Regulations 2002, these remedies comprised damages for non-delivery of the contract goods, specific performance, and damages for breach of warranty. In cases of breach of condition, the buyer generally has the right to reject the goods and repudiate the contract. Since implementation of the 2002 Regulations, a buyer who deals as consumer has additional remedies of repair, replacement, reduction in price, or rescission. These additional consumer remedies are discussed after a consideration of the remedies that are available to all buyers, including consumers, beginning with those remedies granted to a buyer where the seller fails to deliver the goods, or fails to deliver on time. Certain consumer contracts entered into after 1 October 2015 are governed by the Consumer Rights Act 2015, which is also discussed.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

10. Remedies of the buyer  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the various remedies that are available to a buyer under a contract of sale of goods where the seller is in breach of the sales contract. It considers the regime of remedies introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and discusses a range of remedies such as rejecting the goods, suing for non-delivery or late delivery of the goods, suing for damages following the seller’s breach of warranty, requiring the seller to repair or replace the goods, claiming from the seller a reduction in the price, or rescinding the contract. The chapter then explains the difference between breach of condition of the contract and breach of warranty.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

14. Remedies of the buyer  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter, the mirror image of the previous one, focuses on the remedies of the buyer who either does not receive goods or receives a defective delivery. The topic is relatively straightforward, largely restating principles of the general law of contract in the specialised field of sale of goods. The chapter concentrates on three forms of remedy: (1) damages for non-delivery, late delivery, or breach of warranty, (2) the recovery of money paid for a consideration that has totally failed or been validly rejected, and (3) specific performance and injunctions.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

10. Directors’ duties I: duties of performance  

This chapter studies the codification of the director’s duties, how breach of duty can be avoided, and the duties in ss 171–74 of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006). Sections 171–74 of the CA 2006 provide that a director is under a duty to act in accordance with the company’s constitution; a duty to act in a way that would promote the success of the company; a duty to exercise independent judgement; and a duty to exercise reasonable skill, care, and diligence. Ultimately, the standard expected under s 174 is that of a reasonably diligent person with the general knowledge, skill, and experience that the director has. Meanwhile, a breach of duty may be avoided if the breach is approved or authorized, ratified under s 239, or if the court relieves the director of liability under s 1157.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

8. Relations between agent and third party  

This chapter considers the relations between the agent and third party. The typical function of an agent is to affect the legal position of his principal in relation to third parties, typically achieved by the agent effecting contractual relations between his principal and a third party or third parties. To this contract, the agent is usually a stranger and it therefore follows that, providing all parties perform their obligations, there will be no legal relations between the agent and third party, aside from any warranty of authority that might be deemed to exist. If the parties, however, fail to properly perform their obligations, legal relations between the agent and third party may arise that allow one party to sue, or be sued by, the other. This chapter discusses the general rule, and also those situations where the agent and third party will acquire a cause of action against the other.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law

16. Directors’ duties  

This chapter deals with the seven general duties of directors as spelled out in the Companies Act 2006: duty to act within powers; duty to promote the success of the company; duty to exercise independent judgement; duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence; duty to avoid conflicts of interest; duty not to accept benefits from third parties; and duty to declare interest in proposed transaction or arrangement. After providing a background on the codification of directors’ general duties, the chapter turns to the fiduciary duty of directors, including shadow and de facto directors. It also examines statutory requirements involving property transactions; loans, quasi-loans and credit transactions; associated companies and persons ‘connected’ with a director; equitable remedies for breach of duty; the ways in which directors can be relieved of liability; and secondary liability with regard to property.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

Additional Chapter: The UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods  

This chapter is intended to introduce the reader to the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods otherwise known as the ‘Vienna’ Convention or the ‘Convention of the International Sale of Goods (CISG). This chapter is intended to introduce the reader to the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods otherwise known as the ‘Vienna’ Convention or the ‘Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The chapter begins with a discussion of the scope and application of the convention along with the difficulties with its interpretation and the problem of ensuring consistency across all jurisdictions. It then deals with the substantive provisions of the convention covering offer and acceptance, resolving the battle of the forms and variation of contract. It then details the rights, duties and remedies of the parties especially where these differ from English law, for example in relation to the seller’s right to cure, and the right to reduce the price in the event of breach and particularly the limitations on the right of either party to terminate the contract. It ends with a table comparing in summary form. the provisions of the CISG with the position in English law,

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

11. Consumer credit  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses some of the key common law and statutory provisions relating to consumer credit agreements and the common issues that arise. It first explains the provisions of the Consumer Credit Act 1974, as amended by the Consumer Credit Act 2006. The chapter then considers the rights of debtors who take credit under a ‘regulated agreement’, along with the (previous) extortionate credit bargain provisions that have been replaced by a test which considers whether there was an unfair relationship between the debtor and the creditor. It also considers consumer hire agreements, exempt agreements, small agreements, and non-commercial agreements, as well as the liability of the creditor for the seller’s misrepresentation or breach of contract, retaking of protected goods, and the debtor’s right to complete payments ahead of time.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

9. Remedies of the unpaid seller  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter considers the remedies that are available to a seller against the buyer for breach of contract and the position when the buyer refuses delivery of the goods. These are real remedies and personal remedies, which are set out in Parts V and VI of the Sale of Goods Act 1979. An example of a real remedy is a lien over the goods, whereas two examples of a personal remedy are an action for the price and damages for non-acceptance of the goods.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French, and Ryan on Company Law

16. Directors’ duties  

This chapter deals with the seven general duties of directors as spelled out in the Companies Act 2006: duty to act within powers; duty to promote the success of the company; duty to exercise independent judgement; duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence; duty to avoid conflicts of interest; duty not to accept benefits from third parties; and duty to declare interest in proposed transaction or arrangement. After providing a background on the codification of directors’ general duties, the chapter turns to the fiduciary duty of directors, including shadow and de facto directors. It also examines statutory requirements involving property transactions; loans, quasi-loans and credit transactions; associated companies and persons ‘connected’ with a director; equitable remedies for breach of duty; the ways in which directors can be relieved of liability; and secondary liability with regard to property.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

14. Directors’ liabilities for breach of duty  

This chapter focuses on the extent of a director’s civil liability for breach of fiduciary duty and the liability of third parties involved in some way in that breach of duty. One of the most important issues is the extent of a director’s liability to account. Liability can range from accounting for secret profits to claims for equitable compensation and from personal to proprietary claims. Often, a claim will be affected by limitation issues. It may be complicated by the involvement of third party accessories. Mitigation through reliance on indemnity provisions, insurance and by applying to the court for relief is also considered. The discussion covers: breach of fiduciary duty, liability of third parties, claims for negligence, and managing potential liabilities.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

20. The derivative claim and the rule in Foss v Harbottle  

This chapter discusses further aspects of shareholder remedies, namely the common law multiple derivative claim; derivative claims under Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006), Part 11; the reflective loss principle; personal actions at common law; and specific statutory rights under the CA 2006. At common law, a shareholder aggrieved by a breach of duty by a director could bring a derivative claim on behalf of the company, as an exception to the rule in Foss v Harbottle. That common law claim now remains as a common law multiple derivative claim whereas the ‘ordinary’ derivative claim now is a statutory claim under CA 2006, Part 11. This chapter explores both types of derivative claim and assesses their value to shareholders. An important constraint on shareholder recovery is the principle governing reflective loss which has recently been restated by the Supreme Court. This chapter considers the current position in the light of that development.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

5. Exclusion and limitation clauses  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter, which focuses on clauses designed to exclude or limit a party’s liability, first considers exclusion or limitation clauses in the UK under common law rules, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, and the Consumer Rights Act 2015. It explains the distinction between an exclusion clause and a limitation clause before discussing the two main methods of controlling exclusion clauses adopted by the courts. The chapter examines the exclusion or restriction of the statutory implied terms under the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Supply of Goods (Implied Terms) Act 1973, and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982. Finally, it considers the rules introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 in relation to consumer transactions.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

14. Directors’ duties  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter is concerned with the duties which a director owes to the company, including duty to act within powers, duty to promote the company’s success, duty to exercise independent judgement, duty not to accept benefits from third parties, and duty to avoid conflicts of interest. After reviewing the general duties of directors under Part 10 of the Companies Act 2006, the chapter discusses the fiduciary position of directors, the remedies for breach of directors’ duties, and the liability of those who assist a director in the course of a breach of fiduciary duty. Finally, it considers three ways in which a director who is in breach of duty may be relieved from liability.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

5. Directors’ Duties  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines the very important topic of directors’ duties. The chapter considers the main duties, as codified in the Companies Act 2006, including: the duty to act within powers (the proper purposes rule); the duty to promote the success of the company; the duty to exercise independent judgment; the duty to exercise reasonable care, skill, and diligence; the duty to avoid conflicts of interest; and the duty to disclose an interest in a proposed transaction with the company. Related areas such as substantial property transactions and liability for breach are considered. This chapter considers who is a ‘director’, examining the concepts of de facto and shadow directors and how far they owe duties to the company.

Chapter

Cover Sealy & Worthington's Text, Cases, and Materials in Company Law

5. The Board of Directors as an Organ of the Company  

This chapter discusses: members’ rights and duties under the Companies Act 2006 and the company’s constitution; the problems in dividing power between the company’s members and directors, and the consequences of that division; the rules of interpretation that apply to constitutional documents; the practical exercise of the decision-making powers given to members, including the formalities of meetings and the possibility of informal agreements; the legal constraints on the exercise of power by shareholders; and the enforcement of the constitution by the members, and their potential use of shareholders’ agreements to achieve what they cannot achieve via the articles.