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Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

White and Carter (Councils) Ltd v McGregor [1962] AC 413  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in White and Carter (Councils) Ltd v McGregor [1962] AC 413. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

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Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

White and Carter (Councils) Ltd v McGregor [1962] AC 413  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in White and Carter (Councils) Ltd v McGregor [1962] AC 413. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract

26. Anticipatory breach of contract  

This chapter examines the doctrine of anticipatory breach, which occurs where, before the time comes for A to perform their part of the contract, A declares that A is not going to do so. This repudiation of the contractual obligation is itself a breach of contract. The innocent party may choose to either accept or reject an anticipatory breach. If they accept, the contract is terminated and the innocent party can sue for damages immediately. If the anticipatory breach is rejected, then the contract remains on foot. If the innocent party elects not to accept the breach and to keep the contract alive, then they may proceed to perform their side of the bargain and sue for the contract price. However, it appears that this action for the agreed sum, or action in debt, may not succeed if the innocent party had no ‘legitimate interest’ in taking such steps.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

15. Breach of contract  

Repudiation and the right to terminate

This chapter examines how English law defines breach of contract and what the immediate effect of breach is on the validity of the contract, along with the obligations of the parties under the contract. It first considers the core principles underlying the law’s approach to defining breach before explaining how the courts assess performance and the consequences of breach, with particular emphasis on cases involving repudiation. It then discusses three types or classes of contractual terms: conditions, warranties, and innominate terms. It also looks at how the law deals with situations of anticipatory breach and concludes with an analysis of the scope and limits of the right of a party to terminate the contract following a repudiatory breach by the other party.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

18. Performance and breach  

This chapter covers the two contractual situations of performance and breach. First, it recognizes that most contracts are performed and completed, with the consequence that liability ceases and the obligations under the contract are discharged by performance. Some obligations may be classed as conditions precedent, or as conditions subsequent, and the order for performance may be provided for by contingent conditions. The relevance of the entire contracts rule is noted. Second, the chapter explores the injured party’s right to terminate for breach. The right to terminate for repudiatory breach and the right to terminate for anticipatory breach of contract, are both illustrated through the relevant case law which highlight the possible options available to an injured party and the consequences which may follow.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

13. Breach of contract  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. There are four ways to discharge a contract: by performance, agreement, frustration, or breach. The standard of performance required in relation to each contractual obligation needs to be identified because a failure to perform to the required standard constitutes a breach. In the absence of lawful excuse, a breach of contract arises if a party either fails or refuses to perform a contractual obligation imposed on that party by the terms of the contract or performs a contractual obligation in a defective manner. While every breach of contract will give rise to a right to claim damages, the contract will remain in force unless the breach constitutes a repudiatory breach. The chapter examines the types of repudiatory breaches and the election to terminate or affirm, together with an assessment of the law governing the identification of a repudiatory breach and the consequences of terminating when the breach is not in fact repudiatory. It also examines the options available to the non-breaching party when an anticipatory breach occurs.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

22. Breach of Contract and Termination  

This chapter begins with a definition of ‘breach of contract’ and then outlines the circumstances in which a breach of contract gives to the innocent party a right to terminate further performance of the contract. These include breach of a condition and breach of an intermediate term where the consequences of the breach are sufficiently serious. The chapter also considers the problems that can arise in deciding the status of a term which has not been classified by the parties as a condition, a warranty, or an intermediate term. It examines termination clauses and the significance attached to the good faith of the party who is alleged to have repudiated the contract. The chapter includes a brief comparison of English law with the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and with the Principles of European Contract Law, and also addresses the question of whether an innocent party is obligated to exercise its right to terminate further performance of the contract, and considers the loss of the right to terminate. It concludes with a discussion of the law of anticipatory breach of contract.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

13. Breach of contract  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. The performance obligations of the parties to a contract are determined by contractual terms. A breach of contract arises when a party fails to fully comply with a performance obligation, without lawful excuse. If a contractual obligation is strict, failure to comply constitutes a breach of contract regardless of fault. Subject to an enforceable exemption clause, the injured party is entitled to damages to compensate for the loss suffered as a result of the breach. This chapter focuses on breach of contract and its legal consequences. It discusses the election on repudiatory breach; termination or affirmation of a contract; the classification of terms: conditions, warranties, and innominate or intermediate terms; the ‘entire obligation rule’; and anticipatory breach.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

13. Breach of contract  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. The performance obligations of the parties to a contract are determined by contractual terms. A breach of contract arises when a party fails to fully comply with a performance obligation, without lawful excuse. If a contractual obligation is strict, failure to comply constitutes a breach of contract regardless of fault. Subject to an enforceable exemption clause, the injured party is entitled to damages to compensate for the loss suffered as a result of the breach. This chapter focuses on breach of contract and its legal consequences. It discusses the election on repudiatory breach; termination or affirmation of a contract; the classification of terms: conditions, warranties, and innominate or intermediate terms; the ‘entire obligation rule’; and anticipatory breach.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

12. Specific remedies  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter considers remedies that directly address the issue of providing the innocent party with the performance that was expected. Their use depends on a number of factors, which means that they are not universally available, and that the claimant will therefore often be left to his remedy in damages. The discussions cover actions for the price or other agreed sum, the rule in White and Carter v McGregor, affirmation and anticipatory breach. The chapter goes on to discuss specific performance and injunctions and the tests of damages being inadequate, mutuality plus other factors such as personal service contracts and the relevance of the need for supervision.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

12. Specific remedies  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter considers remedies that directly address the issue of providing the innocent party with the performance that was expected. Their use depends on a number of factors, which means that they are not universally available, and that the claimant will therefore often be left to his remedy in damages. The discussions cover actions for the price or other agreed sum, the rule in White and Carter v McGregor, affirmation and anticipatory breach. The chapter goes on to discuss specific performance and injunctions and the tests of damages being inadequate, mutuality plus other factors such as personal service contracts and the relevance of the need for supervision.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

5. Terms and breach of contract  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses how to identify the contractual obligations assumed by the parties in their contract, distinguishing terms (promises) and representations (non-promissory inducements to contract), and identifying the express and implied terms. It also looks at standards of performance, how to identify broken promises as a prelude to considering the remedies for breach of contract, and whether it is possible to opt not to continue to perform further contractual obligations following the other party’s breach.