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Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

5. Principles of Direct Applicability and Direct Effects  

This chapter examines the scope of the doctrines of direct and indirect effect (including ‘direct applicability’) in the context of European Union (EU) law. These doctrines allow individuals to rely on EU law rights in national courts. It explains that while the Court of Justice (CJ) has emphasised that EU directives can apply against the state (vertical direct effect: starting with the Van Gend case), but cannot have direct effect as against individuals (horizontal effect), its case law shows a range of developments which operate to undermine the simplicity of this position. The chapter suggests that granting individuals and national courts a role in the enforcement of Union law has ensured that EU law is applied and Union rights are enforced. It also considers questions concerning the idea of incidental direct effect, triangular situations and the consequences of the line of jurisprudence starting with the judgments in Mangold (case C-144/04) and Kücükdeveci (case C-555/07).

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

17. International Aspects  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter examines the issue of jurisdictional problems in competition law, the ‘internationalisation’ of competition law, and the efforts to deal with competition issues at a global level to match the global operations of undertakings on world markets. It looks first at the question of extraterritoriality in public international law, particularly the concept of objective territoriality. It considers the distinction between prescriptive jurisdiction and enforcement jurisdiction and how these might apply to competition law. It then looks at the development of the effects doctrine in US law and the concept of comity, and at the position of foreign plaintiffs in US courts. It considers how the EU takes jurisdiction by the application of the single economic entity doctrine, the implementation doctrine, and the qualified effects doctrine. The chapter concludes by examining international cooperation in competition law and how competition law must be sensitive to the huge global economic inequalities of the twenty-first century. It looks at the bilateral agreements into which the EU has entered, and the multilateral cooperation to which the EU is party, including cooperation within UNCTAD, the OECD, the WTO, and the International Competition Network (ICN).

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

9. Horizontal Agreements—Cartels and Collusion  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter examines how EU competition law applies both to undertakings operating cartels and to undertakings that tacitly coordinate their behaviour on a market. It starts by looking at the difference between ‘explicit’ and ‘tacit’ collusion. The chapter then deals with cartels and other agreements akin to cartels, or which may facilitate explicit or tacit collusion on a market. Next, it considers the problem of tacit collusion and whether, in particular, Articles 101 and 102 operate as effective mechanisms for dealing with the oligopoly problem. The chapter also considers other options that EU competition law might offer to deal with tacit collusion, either ex ante or ex post, such as the use of the concept of collective dominance and sector inquiries under Regulation 1/2003, Article 17.