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Chapter

Cover EU Law

9. The Application of EU Law: Remedies in National Courts  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the application of EU law by national courts and the way in which the CJEU controls national remedies for breach of EU law. Article 19 of the Treaty on European Union contains a new clause added by the Lisbon Treaty, which specifies that ‘Member States shall provide remedies sufficient to ensure effective legal protection in the fields covered by Union law’. Article 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights provides that ‘[e]veryone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article’. However, beyond these broad new provisions, EU law does not lay down any general scheme of substantive or procedural law governing remedies for its enforcement. The European Court of Justice has responded to the lack of a harmonized system of EU remedies by requiring national courts, in certain cases, to make available a particular type of remedy (e.g., restitution or interim relief), regardless of whether this would be available under national law. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning remedies and EU law in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

9. The Application of EU Law: Remedies in National Courts  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the application of EU law by national courts and the way in which the CJEU controls national remedies for breach of EU law. Article 19 of the Treaty on European Union contains a new clause added by the Lisbon Treaty, which specifies that ‘Member States shall provide remedies sufficient to ensure effective legal protection in the fields covered by Union law’. Article 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights provides that ‘[e]veryone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article’. However, beyond these broad new provisions, EU law does not lay down any general scheme of substantive or procedural law governing remedies for its enforcement. The European Court of Justice has responded to the lack of a harmonized system of EU remedies by requiring national courts, in certain cases, to make available a particular type of remedy (e.g., restitution or interim relief), regardless of whether this would be available under national law. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning remedies and EU law in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

13. Free movement of natural persons and citizenship of the Union  

Catherine Barnard

This chapter discusses EU law on the free movement of persons. It shows how the EU judiciary and legislature have responded to some of the challenges raised by EU migration. It highlights the following themes: the erosion of the requirement of an interstate element; how little it takes to establish an obstacle to free movement and thus a breach by the state of EU law; the need for the state to establish a justification in order to preserve state interests, but notes that what the state can do to protect that interest is severely curtailed by the principles of human rights and proportionality. It shows that the Court views cases on the free movement of natural persons through a citizenship lens and thus is more willing to embrace a human rights dimension than it would be in cases on free movement of legal persons.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

10. The Relationship Between EU Law and National Law: Supremacy  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the doctrine of supremacy of EU law, which was developed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) based on its conception of the ‘new legal order’. The ECJ ruled that the aim of creating a uniform common market between different states would be undermined if EU law could be made subordinate to national law of the various states. The validity of EU law can therefore, according to the ECJ, never be assessed by reference to national law. National courts are required to give immediate effect to EU law, of whatever rank, in cases that arise before them, and to ignore or to set aside any national law, of whatever rank, which could impede the application of EU law. Thus, according to the ECJ, any norm of EU law takes precedence over any provision of national law, including the national constitutions. This broad assertion of the supremacy of EU law has not however been accepted without qualification by national courts, and the chapter examines the nature of the qualifications that have been imposed by some national courts. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of the supremacy of EU law in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

10. The Relationship Between EU Law and National Law: Supremacy  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the doctrine of supremacy of EU law, which was developed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) based on its conception of the ‘new legal order’. The ECJ ruled that the aim of creating a uniform common market between different states would be undermined if EU law could be made subordinate to national law of the various states. The validity of EU law can therefore, according to the ECJ, never be assessed by reference to national law. National courts are required to give immediate effect to EU law, of whatever rank, in cases that arise before them, and to ignore or to set aside any national law, of whatever rank, which could impede the application of EU law. Thus, according to the ECJ, any norm of EU law takes precedence over any provision of national law, including the national constitutions. This broad assertion of the supremacy of EU law has not however been accepted without qualification by national courts, and the chapter examines the nature of the qualifications that have been imposed by some national courts. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of the supremacy of EU law in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

10. Judicial protection before the Court of Justice of the European Union  

Albertina Albors-Llorens

This chapter provides an overview of the various procedural avenues to the Court of Justice of the European Union. It uses as a template the division between two main sets of proceedings: direct actions and preliminary references. Direct actions are brought directly either before the Court of Justice or the General Court; these are dealt with in their entirety by these courts. By contrast, preliminary references begin before a national court. When this court encounters a question on the interpretation or the validity of EU law, it may (or sometimes must) make a preliminary reference on this particular point to the Court of Justice.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

14. Preliminary Rulings  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter focuses on Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which contains the preliminary ruling procedure. Article 267 has been of seminal importance for the development of EU law. It is through preliminary rulings that the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has developed concepts such as direct effect and supremacy. Individuals assert in national courts that the Member State has broken a Union provision, which gives them rights that they can enforce in their national courts. The national court seeks a ruling from the ECJ whether the particular EU provision has direct effect, and the ECJ is thereby able to develop the concept. Article 267 has been the mechanism through which national courts and the ECJ have engaged in a discourse on the appropriate reach of EU law when it has come into conflict with national legal norms. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which the preliminary reference system is relevant in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

14. Preliminary Rulings  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter focuses on Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which contains the preliminary ruling procedure. Article 267 has been of seminal importance for the development of EU law. It is through preliminary rulings that the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has developed concepts such as direct effect and supremacy. Individuals assert in national courts that the Member State has broken a Union provision, which gives them rights that they can enforce in their national courts. The national court seeks a ruling from the ECJ whether the particular EU provision has direct effect, and the ECJ is thereby able to develop the concept. Article 267 has been the mechanism through which national courts and the ECJ have engaged in a discourse on the appropriate reach of EU law when it has come into conflict with national legal norms. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which the preliminary reference system is relevant in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

26. Brexit: the Legal Dimension  

Steve Peers and Darren Harvey

The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020, following the results of the Brexit referendum of June 2016. How does the process for leaving the EU work, and what legal issues does it raise?

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to European Law

1. Union Institutions  

This chapter discusses the four major European Union institutions: the European Parliament, the European Council, the European Commission, and the European Court. The provisions dealing with the EU institutions are split between the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Directly elected by the European citizens, the Parliament constitutes not only the most democratic institution; it is also the most supranational institution of the EU. Ultimately, each of the EU institutions is characterized by its distinct composition and its decision-making mode. Importantly, the EU is not based on a strict separation of functions between its institutions but follows a ‘checks and balances’ version of the separation-of-powers principle. This means that various EU institutions share in the exercise of various governmental functions.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

9. Fundamental rights in the European Union  

Eleanor Spaventa

This chapter examines fundamental rights in the EU. It begins by analysing the historical background and the development of the case law on fundamental rights. It then examines the main Treaty provisions relating to fundamental rights protection, before turning to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. Finally, it looks at the relationship between the EU and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), including the extent to which the European Court of Human Rights agrees to scrutinize EU acts. It also considers the plan for the EU to accede to the ECHR.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

13. Free movement of natural persons and citizenship of the Union  

Catherine Barnard

This chapter discusses EU law on the free movement of persons. It shows how the EU judiciary and legislature have responded to some of the challenges raised by EU migration. It highlights the following themes: the erosion of the requirement of an interstate element; how little it takes to establish an obstacle to free movement and thus a breach by the state of EU law; the need for the state to establish a justification in order to preserve state interests, but notes that what the state can do to protect that interest is curtailed by the principles of human rights and proportionality. It shows that the Court views cases on the free movement of natural persons through a citizenship lens and thus is more willing to embrace a human rights dimension than it would be in cases on free movement of legal persons.

Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

6. Preliminary references  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter considers the procedure whereby a national court may make a preliminary reference to the Court of Justice under Article 267 TFEU and receive a preliminary ruling on the questions which it has referred. The chapter examines the questions of law that may be referred to the Court of Justice; the criteria for the ‘court or tribunal’ which may make a reference; from which courts a reference is discretionary and from which it will be mandatory; references concerning the interpretation and validity of EU law; national courts’ decision-making process in preliminary references and the relevant guidelines and exceptions; procedures in the Court of Justice for dealing with preliminary references under Article 267 TFEU; and the effects of a preliminary ruling.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

10. Judicial protection and EU remedies  

Albertina Albors-Llorens

This chapter provides an overview of the various procedural avenues to the Court of Justice of the European Union. It uses as a template the division between two main sets of proceedings: direct actions and preliminary references. Direct actions are brought directly either before the Court of Justice or the General Court; these are dealt with in their entirety by these courts. By contrast, preliminary references begin before a national court. When this court encounters a question on the interpretation or the validity of EU law, it may (or sometimes must) make a preliminary reference on this particular point to the Court of Justice.

Chapter

Cover EU Law in the UK

6. The relationship between EU and national law  

This chapter focuses on the relationship between EU law and national law. It first explores the jurisprudence on what is known as the doctrine of supremacy of EU law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). When a national court observes that a national law clashes with an EU law, they must set aside that national law. The EU legal order would not work without a doctrine like supremacy: not only would domestic courts not be compelled to apply EU law instead of conflicting national law, but it is likely that different domestic courts would take different decisions as to whether to apply EU law over national law in a given scenario. The chapter then considers how supremacy has been received in Germany and the UK, looking at how the German and UK legal orders interact with EU law. It then addresses whether ‘parliamentary sovereignty’ is compatible with EU membership, and examines the impact of Brexit on the supremacy of EU law.

Chapter

Cover EU Law in the UK

7. Connecting EU law to domestic law: the preliminary reference procedure  

This chapter assesses how conflicts between national law and EU law actually reach the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The Treaties have created a distinct role for the CJEU: it can decide cases where the validity of an EU law is not necessarily at issue, but rather its meaning is not entirely clear to a body that is meant to apply it. That process is set out in Article 267 TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union), and involves two separate but related steps. First, a domestic court has to refer (or ask) a question of the CJEU about the meaning of EU law at stake in a dispute it is hearing. Second, the CJEU offers an interpretation of EU law to the domestic court, enabling the domestic court to decide the dispute before it. The chapter then looks at the attitude of the UK courts towards the preliminary reference process, and considers judicial law-making. It also discusses the impact of Brexit on the preliminary reference process.

Chapter

Cover EU Law in the UK

5. Limits to EU legislative powers  

This chapter investigates the EU's competences and the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality, assessing if the limits set out in the Treaties actually work as concrete limits on EU legislative powers in practice. It begins by considering whether competences are genuinely clear and finite in how they set out limits to areas in which the EU can make laws. There are three aspects of EU law that have been deemed responsible for the EU's competence creep: the flexible provisions of Article 114 TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) and Article 352 TFEU, and the so-called doctrine of ‘implied powers’. Underpinning all three of these areas of ‘flexibility’ is criticism of the manner in which the Court of Justice has interpreted the relevant treaty provisions or doctrines. The chapter then evaluates the effectivity of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality. It also looks at the impact of Brexit on the limits to EU legislative powers.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to European Law

1. Union Institutions  

This chapter discusses the five major European Union institutions: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Commission, and the European Court. The provisions dealing with the EU institutions are split between the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Ultimately, each of the EU institutions is characterized by its distinct composition and its decision-making mode. Importantly, the EU is not based on a strict separation of functions between its institutions but follows a ‘checks and balances’ version of the separation-of-powers principle. This means that various EU institutions share in the exercise of various governmental functions.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Gerhard Köbler v Republik Österreich (Case C-224/01), EU:C:2003:513, [2003] ECR I-10239, 30 September 2003  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Gerhard Köbler v Republik Österreich (Case C-224/01), EU:C:2003:513, [2003] ECR I-10239, 30 September 2003. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Gerhard Köbler v Republik Österreich (Case C-224/01), EU:C:2003:513, [2003] ECR I-10239, 30 September 2003  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Gerhard Köbler v Republik Österreich (Case C-224/01), EU:C:2003:513, [2003] ECR I-10239, 30 September 2003. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.