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Chapter

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK

21. State intervention: public undertakings and state aid  

Competition law in the EU also exerts some degree of control over the actions of the Member States when they intervene in the market in ways which could harm the competitive process. The Member States commit to complying with these and other obligations the moment they agree to be bound by the acquis unionaire, which is a prerequisite for EU membership. There are two main provisions in this regard: Articles 106 and 107 TFEU. This chapter covers the basic principles underlying the application of Articles 106 and 107 TFEU, and explores the interplay between the general prohibitions they contain and their multiple exceptions. Article 106 ensures that undertakings owned, established, or regulated by the State are not protected or advantaged vis-à-vis private competitors, while Article 107 TFEU contains a general prohibition of state aid.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

6. The obligations of Member States under the EU competition rules  

This chapter examines the obligations of Member States in relation to EU competition law. Specifically, it considers the obligations that Article 4(3) TEU and Articles 37 and 106 TFEU place upon Member States. Article 4(3) requires all Member States to take all appropriate measures to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties, and to avoid any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the EU’s objectives. Article 106 particularly obligates Member States to refrain from enacting or maintaining measures contrary to the rules provided in Article 18 and Articles 101 to 109 of the TFEU. Article 37 is concerned with the procurement of goods.

Book

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

Brenda Sufrin, Niamh Dunne, and Alison Jones

EU Competition Law: Text, Cases, and Materials provides a complete guide to European competition law in a single authoritative volume. Carefully selected extracts from key cases, academic articles, and statutory materials are accompanied by in-depth author commentary from three experienced academics in the field. Thorough footnoting and referencing give a tour of the available literature, making this an ideal text and stand-alone resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as for competition law scholars engaged in specialised study. This eighth edition has been fully updated with detailed coverage and commentary on recent developments. These include contemporary concerns about the objectives, interpretation, and application of competition law in the light of sustainability imperatives including the EU’s Green Deal, worldwide economic and political upheaval stemming in particular from the Covid-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine, and continuing developments in the digital economy; the EU Courts’ judgments on Articles 101, 102, and mergers including Intel (RENV), Google and Alphabet, Google (Android), Slovak Telekom, Generics, Lundbeck, and CK Telecoms; cases on the Commission’s enforcement powers and judicial review, including Sped-Pro and Slovak Telekom; new legislation, guidelines, and notices (in final form or draft) on vertical agreements, horizontal agreements, and market definition; Commission actions in the pharmaceutical, energy, and financial sectors, including interaction with regulatory rules, liberalisation programmes, and intellectual property law; private litigation in the wake of the directive on damages, including the Court’s judgments in Sumal and Paccar; and thorough discussion of ongoing developments in competition law such as the Commission’s enforcement policy against cartels, the appraisal of mergers, the use of commitments decisions, the use of comfort letters during Covid-19 and the Commission’s revised notice on informal guidance, and the increasing activity by national competition authorities. The eighth edition contains an entirely new chapter on the digital economy, including detailed coverage of the Digital Markets Act.

Book

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

EU Competition Law: Text, Cases, and Materials provides a complete guide to European competition law in a single authoritative volume. Carefully selected extracts from key cases, academic articles, and statutory materials are accompanied by in-depth author commentary from three experienced academics in the field. Thorough footnoting and referencing give a tour of the available literature, making this an ideal text and stand-alone resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as for competition law scholars engaged in specialized study. This seventh edition has been fully updated with detailed coverage and commentary on recent developments. These include the EU Courts’ judgments on Articles 101, 102 and 106 including Intel; cases on the Commission’s enforcement powers and judicial review; new legislation and guidelines on technology transfer; the revised de minimis notice; Commission actions in the digital economy, including the Google case; the directive on damages; and thorough discussion of ongoing developments in competition law such as the Commission's enforcement policy against cartels, the appraisal of mergers, the use of commitments decisions and the compatibility of EU competition procedures with human rights provisions.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

6. The obligations of Member States under the EU competition rules  

This chapter examines the obligations of Member States in relation to EU competition law. Specifically, it considers the obligations that Article 4(3) TEU and Articles 37 and 106 TFEU place upon Member States. Article 4(3) requires all Member States to take all appropriate measures to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties, and to avoid any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the EUs objectives. Article 106 particularly obligates Member States to refrain from enacting or maintaining measures, contrary to the rules provided in Article 18 and Articles 101 to 109 of the TFEU. Article 37 is concerned with state monopolies of a commercial character.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

2. The Competition Law and Institutions of the European Union  

This chapter sketches the history and functions of the EU and its institutions in order to set the EU competition rules in context. It then describes the competition provisions themselves and outlines the way in which the rules are applied and enforced, including the public enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 under Regulation 1/2003, the control of mergers with a European dimension under Regulation 139/2004, public enforcement by the national competition authorities of the Member States, and the role of private enforcement. It discusses the position and powers of the European Commission, particularly the role of the Competition Directorate General (DG Comp); the powers of the EU Courts; the significance of fundamental rights and the general principles of EU law in competition cases; the application of competition rules to particular sectors of the economy; and the application of the EU rules to the EEA.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

2. The Competition Law and Institutions of the European Union  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter sketches the history and functions of the EU and its institutions in order to set the EU competition rules in context. It then describes the competition provisions themselves and outlines the way in which the rules are applied and enforced, including the public enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 under Regulation 1/2003, the control of mergers with a European dimension under Regulation 139/2004, public enforcement by the national competition authorities of the Member States, and the role of private enforcement. It discusses the position and powers of the European Commission, particularly the role of the Competition Directorate General (DG Comp); the powers of the EU Courts; the significance of fundamental rights and the general principles of EU law in competition cases; the application of competition rules to particular sectors of the economy; and the application of the EU rules to the EEA.