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Chapter

This chapter discusses the law covering atypical workers. These include part-time workers, fixed-term workers, agency workers and ex-offenders. The EU social policy was tasked with coming up with a number of directives to prevent discrimination against such workers, and to give them what is effectively a ‘floor of rights’. Under the law, part-time workers should not be treated less favourably than full-timers, unless this can be objectively justified. Fixed-term workers should not be treated less favourably than full-timers, unless this can be objectively justified. A fixed-term employee who has been with the same employer for four years is entitled to a permanent contract. An agency worker is entitled to comparable terms and conditions as a permanent employee after twelve weeks. Ex-offenders are entitled not to refer to their convictions in certain circumstances, depending on what they were sentenced to.

Chapter

UK employment law does not give equal protection to everyone considered to be working for an employer. In fact, a substantial minority of people who work for private firms, companies and public sector organisations do not enjoy the protection of employment law in some significant respects. There are four types of situation that often deny people the opportunity to bring their claims to court: when a claimant is not considered to be an employee; when a claimant is not considered to be a worker; when a claimant (who is an employee) has not completed sufficient continuous service with their employer; and when a claimant is found not to be working legally in the UK. In addition, employment tribunals operate strict limits on how soon after someone is dismissed or suffers from an instance of unlawful discrimination they make a claim if they want it to be heard. For most tribunal jurisdictions this time limit is set at three months, meaning that after this period has passed a claim cannot be considered because it is ‘out of time’. In practice this rule can also act as a fifth type of barrier preventing people from accessing their employment rights. This chapter focuses on these five types of situations.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the concept of employment status. Topics covered include the reasons for distinguishing employees from other types of worker; statutory definitions of employee and worker; and the courts’ and tribunals’ approach to identifying employees. The tests for employment status are stated concentrating on mutuality of obligations and personal service. Discussion centres on zero hours contracts, agency workers, and the gig economy.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the concept of employment status. Topics covered include the reasons for distinguishing employees from other types of worker; statutory definitions of employee and worker; and the courts’ and tribunals’ approach to identifying employees. The tests for employment status are stated, concentrating on mutuality of obligations and personal service. Discussion centres on zero hours contracts, agency workers, and the gig economy.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law on the free movement of persons in the EU. Free movement of persons is one of the four ‘freedoms’ of the internal market. Original EC Treaty provisions granted free movement rights to the economically active—workers, persons exercising the right of establishment, and persons providing services in another Member State. The Treaty also set out the general principle of non-discrimination on grounds of nationality, ‘within the scope of application of the Treaty’. All these provisions are now contained in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Early secondary legislation granted rights to family members, students, retired persons, and persons of independent means. The Citizenship Directive 2004/38 consolidated this legislation.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions along with examiner’s tips, answer plans, and suggested answers about the free movement of persons in the EU. The area of law straddles three main subdivisions, comprising the free movement of workers, involving most of the secondary legislation and case law; secondly the freedom of establishment and freedom to provide services; and additionally now, Union citizenship. The chapter includes all types of questions, such as combination essay-type questions, combination problem-type questions, problem questions concerned only with the free movement of workers, an essay-type question concentrating on the free movement of professionals and questions which involve citizenship and wider free movement issues.

Chapter

Matthew J. Homewood and Clare Smith

This chapter discusses the law on the free movement of persons in the EU. Free movement of persons is one of the four ‘freedoms’ of the internal market. Original EC Treaty provisions granted free movement rights to the economically active: workers, persons exercising the right of establishment, and persons providing services in another Member State. The Treaty also set out the general principle of non-discrimination on grounds of nationality, ‘within the scope of application of the Treaty’. All these provisions are now contained in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Early secondary legislation granted rights to family members, students, retired persons, and persons of independent means. The Citizenship Directive 2004/38 consolidated this legislation.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the contract of employment and its termination. It considers the difference between an employee, an employee shareholder, an independent contractor, and a worker, and the tests used to establish their status. It discusses the types of implied terms contained in a contract of employment. The chapter also considers termination of a contract of employment, examining the difference between unfair, constructive, and wrongful dismissal. It looks at claims for unfair dismissal, considering the potentially fair reasons for dismissal, the band of reasonable responses, the automatically unfair reasons for dismissal, and the remedies available where unfair dismissal has occurred. The chapter concludes with a discussion of redundancy.

Chapter

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Van Duyn v Home Office (Case 41/74), EU:C:1974:133, [1974] ECR 1337, 4 December 1974. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Van Duyn v Home Office (Case 41/74), EU:C:1974:133, [1974] ECR 1337, 4 December 1974. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Van Duyn v Home Office (Case 41/74), EU:C:1974:133, [1974] ECR 1337, 4 December 1974. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about employment status. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of employment status including definitions of employee and worker, the common law tests for determining whether a contract of employment exists, and discussion on the changing nature of the labour market including the gig economy. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

This chapter discusses law on employment discrimination. It considers the background theoretical problems of legislation in this area and its history; the forms of discrimination; and the areas of discrimination covered by the Equality Act 2010. It then examines the scope of the legislation in terms of legislative protection given to applicants for employment, employees during employment, and former employees. This is followed by an investigation into the exceptions to the statutory claims and the legal enforcement of them. The chapter concludes by looking at two areas of statutory discrimination law that are not covered by the 2010 Act: discrimination against part-time workers; and discrimination against fixed-term workers.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the parties to a contract of employment, the distinction between employees and self-employed persons, and other categories of parties to a contract of employment, looking at the different types of employment status and the tests used to decide which category a person falls into. It includes the status of directors, partners, office holders, ministers of religion, and the police, as well as apprentices, posted workers, domestic servants, and those working abroad and in offshore employment. It also has a discussion of whether people working in the ‘gig economy’ are workers or employees. Further, the chapter looks at those on fixed-term contracts and agency workers.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the parties to a contract of employment, the distinction between employees, workers and self-employed persons, and other categories of parties to a contract of employment, looking at the different types of employment status and the tests used to decide which category a person falls into. It includes the status of directors, partners, office holders, ministers of religion, and the police, as well as apprentices, posted workers, domestic servants, and those working abroad and in offshore employment. It also looks at employee shareholders and has a discussion of whether people working in the ‘gig economy’ are workers or employees. Further, the chapter looks at those on fixed-term contracts and agency workers. It also summarises the new IR35 regime and looks at modern slavery.

Chapter

This chapter studies the ‘free movement of workers’, which was where free movement of persons law began under the Treaty of Rome. The current free movement of workers provisions are found in Articles 45–48 TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union). Article 45 TFEU provides that freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Union. Such freedom of movement shall entail the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality between workers of the Member States as regards employment, remuneration, and other conditions of work and employment. The chapter then explores the personal, material, and geographical scope of Article 45 TFEU. It also looks at the impact of Brexit on the status of current and future EU ‘workers’. The 2016 UK referendum showed that concerns about EU nationals being able to come without any restriction to the UK and access both British jobs and British benefits were one of the key drivers in the vote to leave the EU.

Chapter

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about employment status. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of employment status including definitions of employee and worker, the common law tests for determining whether a contract of employment exists, and discussion on the changing nature of the labour market including the gig economy. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the way in which the law has had to keep up with changing models of ‘employment’. Even the old ‘employee/self-employed’ division is now complicated by increasing use in modern statutes of the term ‘worker’. Part-time, fixed-term, and agency workers have featured prominently in modern employment law and consideration is given to these specifically, along with even more topical areas of concern such as zero-hours contracts and the challenges of the ‘gig economy’ more generally. Three more technical areas are then considered. The first concerns the ‘section 1 statement’ of basic terms and conditions that has been an obligation on employers since 1963 but is still not always given. The second concerns the difficult question of the extent to which an employer can seek to impose limitations on an employee even after employment ends. The third concerns the whole question of how the terms of an employment contract can lawfully be changed by one or both of the parties to it.

Chapter

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, Rowena Moffatt, and Helena Wray

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the law which governs the free movement of people within the EU. As such, it is principally about the movement of EU nationals. The movement of non-EU nationals, known in European law as third-country nationals, may come within the ambit of EU law due to their connection with EU nationals; for instance, as a spouse or employee. The chapter concentrates on the rights of EU nationals and their families to move within the EU, and covers the powers to deport or remove EU nationals. It also considers the possible impacts of Brexit on free movement rights.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the rights given to workers under Article 45 TFEU and to the self-employed under Article 49 TFEU, as well as the relevance of the Citizens’ Rights Directive 2004/38 to these groups. In respect of workers, the chapter also considers Regulation 492/11 and the Enforcement Directive 2014/54. It explains the definition of a ‘worker’ and then discusses the rights conferred on workers, particularly the rights to social welfare benefits. For the self-employed, the chapter considers the scope of application of the Treaty and the rights enjoyed by the self-employed including under the Mutual Recognition of Diplomas Directive 2005/36.