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Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

22. Article 3, First Protocol: The Right to Free Elections  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 3 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, which imposes a positive obligation on states to secure free elections. The Court has read into this text individual rights to vote and to stand for election, reversing its technique of deriving positive obligations from the expressly articulated guarantees of individual rights contained in other Articles of the Convention. The right of prisoners to vote is included.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

22. Article 3, First Protocol: The right to free elections  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, Carla Buckley, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 3 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, which imposes a positive obligation on states to secure free elections. The Court has read into this text individual rights to vote and to stand for election, reversing its technique of deriving positive obligations from the expressly articulated guarantees of individual rights contained in other Articles of the Convention. The right of prisoners to vote is included.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

7. Protecting Rights  

This chapter examines the development and nature of constitutional rights. The discussions cover the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); the campaign to incorporate the ECHR into UK law; the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA); a case study on prisoner voting Hirst v UK (No. 2); criticisms of the HRA; the European Union and human rights.

Chapter

Cover Sentencing and Punishment

8. Justice in the modern prison  

This chapter focuses on the treatment of adult prisoners, examining a number of aspects of prison life as well as considering the aims of imprisonment. Key developments since 1990 are considered, including the Woolf Report, managerialism and privatisation, the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998, and the debate on prisoners’ right to vote, to assess whether the just treatment of prisoners has been achieved. While substantial improvements in prison regimes have been made since the early 1990s, there has also been considerable pressure on them from the expanding prison population. The problem of reconciling respect for the human rights of prisoners with the administrative needs of the prison system and the deterrent function of prisons will be highlighted. The potential to limit prison expansion in the current political climate will also be considered.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

4. Shares and Shareholders  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. Shareholders in a company own shares, but the nature of a share and the rights of a shareholder are not easily defined. This chapter discusses the definition and characteristics of a share; the differences between different types of share, particularly ordinary and preference shares; allotment of shares and pre-emption rights; return of capital; and variation of class rights.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

25. Article 3 of the First Protocol: right to free elections  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter deals with Article 3 of the First Protocol which imposes on states a duty to hold elections. At the heart of Article 3 is the view that the best way to uphold human rights is through upholding an ‘effective political democracy’. Human rights require states to respect various rights and freedoms that are necessary for any system if it is to be democratic. Though Article 3 of the First Protocol appears to provide only a collective right to fair elections, it has been interpreted to also provide for individual rights to vote, to stand, and to sit, if elected. Article 3 does not, however, provide wide rights to participate in political processes. Its scope is confined to elections for ‘the legislature’, which do not include local elections or referendums. The controversy over prisoners’ voting rights is discussed in this chapter.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Hirst v United Kingdom [2005] ECHR 681, European Court of Human Rights (Application 74025/01) (Grand Chamber)  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Hirst v United Kingdom [2005] ECHR 681, European Court of Human Rights (Grand Chamber). This case note concerns the provisions limiting the voting rights of prisoners, and the extent to which the United Kingdom is bound to follow the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Hirst v United Kingdom [2005] ECHR 681, European Court of Human Rights (Application 74025/01) (Grand Chamber)  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Hirst v United Kingdom [2005] ECHR 681, European Court of Human Rights (Grand Chamber). This case note concerns the provisions limiting the voting rights of prisoners, and the extent to which the United Kingdom is bound to follow the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

21. Protecting Human Rights Case Studies: School Uniforms, Terrorism, and Prisoner Voting  

This and the previous chapter examine how human rights are protected in the domestic courts of the UK. This chapter examines three rather different case studies that illustrate some of the key issues of practice and principle that arise when human rights claims are litigated. The first of these is the case brought by Shabina Begum challenging her school’s refusal to allow her to wear a jilbab to school. The second case study considers the application of the Human Rights Act in the context of anti-terrorism measures. The third considers prisoner voting a matter that has caused considerable tension because of the UK’s reluctance to comply with decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Human Rights and Civil Liberties

8. Prisoners’ Rights  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers prisoners’ rights, including their protection in domestic law and under the ECHR, and their application to matters such as the right to life, freedom from inhuman and degrading treatment, and the democratic rights of prisoners.

Chapter

Cover Sealy & Worthington's Text, Cases, and Materials in Company Law

5. The Board of Directors as an Organ of the Company  

This chapter discusses: members’ rights and duties under the Companies Act 2006 and the company’s constitution; the problems in dividing power between the company’s members and directors, and the consequences of that division; the rules of interpretation that apply to constitutional documents; the practical exercise of the decision-making powers given to members, including the formalities of meetings and the possibility of informal agreements; the legal constraints on the exercise of power by shareholders; and the enforcement of the constitution by the members, and their potential use of shareholders’ agreements to achieve what they cannot achieve via the articles.