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Chapter

Cover Criminal Justice

12. Gender and criminal justice  

Margaret Malloch and Gill McIvor

This chapter, which examines the relevance of gender to an understanding of criminal justice responses to offending and victimisation, covers: gender differences in criminal involvement; gender and sentencing; gender and punishment; gender and ‘victimisation’; and gender and the criminal justice professions.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

19. Prostitution and sex work  

Jo Phoenix

This chapter explores current characteristics and contexts of women’s involvement in prostitution and sex work, particularly as they have evolved during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, before describing criminological knowledge about prostitution and sex workers. The final sections of the chapter review current regulatory frameworks governing women’s involvement in prostitution. Running throughout the chapter is the question: what is the relationship between how prostitution is theorized and the politics of prostitution policy and its reform?

Chapter

Cover Criminology

3. What do crime statistics tell us?  

Tim Hope

This chapter focuses on one of the most popular of crime statistics—the crime rate—which provides an index of crime occurring in a particular jurisdiction for a specific time period. It discusses the nature of crime statistics; counting crime; recording incidents as criminal offences; reporting crime to the police; the frequency of crime victimization; and the rate of crime victimization.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

30. Prostitution and sex work  

Jo Phoenix

This chapter explores current characteristics and contexts of women’s involvement in prostitution and sex, particularly as they have evolved during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, before describing criminological knowledge about prostitution and sex workers. The final sections of the chapter review current regulatory frameworks governing women’s involvement in prostitution. Running throughout the chapter is the question: what is the relationship between how prostitution is theorized and the politics of prostitution policy and its reform?

Chapter

Cover Understanding Deviance

12. Victimology  

Victimology is now regarded as a central component to the study of crime and deviance. Victim-based analysis enables understanding of different aspects of criminal and deviant behaviour and is redefining focal research concerns across a range of crimes. This academic development has been matched by the recognition by the criminal justice system of the consequences of victimization and moves towards both victim services and a victim-centred justice process, and by increasing political concern with victimization. The chapter analyses victimology’s key conceptual approaches, ideas, and typologies and examines whether and how different criminological perspectives understand the victim. The chapter considers the issue of victim precipitation, in the context of offender motivation, crime events operandi, and differential risks. It concludes with a discussion of how victimology has connected across to human rights violations with restorative and transitional justice foregrounding consideration of global issues such as truth-telling, reconciliation, reparations, peace-building, and normative compliance.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

11. Gender and feminist criminology  

Pamela Ugwudike

This chapter focuses on criminological studies of gender, particularly women’s experiences as offenders and victims, and the extent to which women’s offending and victimisation are interlinked. It begins with an overview of how gender features in criminological studies then considers the origins and principles of feminist criminology, which is a strand of criminology that has heavily influenced criminological studies of gender and crime. The chapter also explores the main theoretical traditions within feminist criminology and the philosophical orientations that influence feminist research. This exploration includes the criticisms levelled against feminist criminology. Finally, the chapter examines how more recent strands of feminist thought have tried to respond to these criticisms.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

7. Victimology  

Angus Nurse

This chapter assesses victimology, which has become an important sub-discipline within criminology. Victimology includes the study of victimisation as well as the challenges of legal and institutional definitions of the ‘victim’. Discussions include debates concerning victims’ rights and activism and how victimhood has come to be understood and responded to. The chapter then considers both narrow and wider ideas of victimisation, and examines whether and how criminal justice processes and public policy have developed in response to victims’ needs. While victims are really the people who the criminal investigation and trial are meant to serve, they are often not part of the process. The chapter also looks at a key part of victimology, which is the use of statistical evidence on the levels of victimisation.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

15. Ethnicities, racism, crime, and criminal justice  

Coretta Phillips, Ben Bowling, and Alpa Parmar

Offending, victimization, policing, the work of the courts, and imprisonment are patterned by differences between different ethnic groups. This chapter explores these long-standing patterns and critically examines the reasons for the often uneasy and conflictual relationship between minority ethnic groups and agents of the criminal justice system. It also interrogates new manifestations of ethnic patterns in crime and the administration of justice, particularly those linked to the global issues of controlling migration and terrorism. Finally, the chapter considers how criminological scholarship has developed in this subfield of race, ethnicity, and crime.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

8. Ethnicities, racism, crime, and criminal justice  

Coretta Phillips and Ben Bowling

Offending, victimization, policing, the work of the courts, and imprisonment are patterned by differences between different ethnic groups. This chapter explores these long-standing patterns and critically examines the reasons for the often uneasy and conflictual relationship between minority ethnic groups and agents of the criminal justice system. It also interrogates new manifestations of ethnic patterns in crime and the administration of justice, particularly those linked to the global issues of controlling migration and terrorism. Finally, the chapter considers how criminological scholarship has developed in this subfield of race, ethnicity, and crime.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

5. Discrimination at work, prohibited conduct, and enforcement  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the provisions of the Equality Act 2010. Applicants for jobs must not be asked about their health or disability in the recruitment process. Prohibited conduct refers to direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, and victimisation. Segregation on racial grounds is also prohibited. In addition, there is no minimum period of employment needed before one can make a discrimination claim.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

10. Race, ethnicities, and the criminal justice system  

Neena Samota

This chapter explores the broader context and history of race-related issues in the UK, considering why racial disparities persist in diverse societies like the US, Australia, Canada, and the UK, before narrowing the focus to race and ethnicity in the sphere of crime and criminal justice. The concepts of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’ have long played major roles in both classroom and broader societal discussions about crime, punishment, and justice, but they have arguably never been more present and visible than today. The chapter looks at the problems with the statistics available on race, ethnicity, and crime, noting the ways in which they may not tell the whole story, before considering the statistics themselves as the chapter discusses the relationships between ethnicity and victimisation and offending. It then moves on to how ethnic minorities experience the various elements of the criminal justice system and the disadvantages they often face, before outlining the attempts that have been made to address these disparities at a state level. Finally, the chapter discusses critical race theory, a key theory in modern criminological examinations of race and its relationship to crime and justice, which grew out of the US but has much broader value and relevance as a framework of analysis.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

14. Race discrimination  

This chapter deals with race discrimination law under the Equality Act. Race includes colour, nationality and ethnic or national origins. The chapter discusses the historical and legal background of race discrimination law, protected characteristics, prohibited conduct on grounds of race discrimination, and bringing an action in the employment tribunal. Race discrimination legislation mirrors that of other discrimination law. It covers direct and indirect discrimination, victimisation and harassment. For direct discrimination, it also looks at perceptive and associative discrimination, and considers who the comparator may be. It also looks at occupational requirements, which are a defence to an accusation of direct discrimination.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

16. Sex discrimination  

This chapter deals with sex discrimination law under the Equality Act. It discusses the historical and legal background of sex discrimination law, protected characteristics and prohibited conduct on grounds of sex discrimination. Sex discrimination is symmetrical in that it can be claimed by both men and women. Direct sex discrimination cannot be justified unless there is an occupational requirement while indirect sex discrimination can be objectively justified. A person who has been treated less favourably for claiming sex discrimination or giving evidence in such a matter can claim victimisation. A person can claim harassment, and sexual harassment is also specifically outlawed in the Equality Act. The chapter also discusses dress codes.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

14. Demystifying hate crime in an age of crises  

Neil Chakraborti and Amy Clarke

This chapter examines the extent of hate crimes in the age of crises. It acknowledges how the concept of hate crime is notoriously complex and contested. The continued rise of hate incidents paints a worrying picture of seemingly legitimized hostile and prejudiced attitudes rooted within wider structural inequalities. Even though ne and physical hostility is normalized, legitimized, and politically weaponized, there is a deafening silence from national governments when it comes to addressing the underlying causes of hate crime. The chapter considers the complex realities of perpetration and victimization in an effort to improve responses to hate crime in times of increasing fragility and uncertainty.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

20. Understanding and rehabilitating men with sexual convictions: Theory, intervention, and compassion  

Nicholas Blagden and Belinda Winder

This chapter explores the theory, intervention, and compassion to understand and rehabilitate men under sexual convictions. It examines some of the statistics and trends around sexual offending before considering the heterogeneity and severity of sexual offences. People with sexual convictions are a heterogeneous group often with complex needs and trauma histories. Thus, compassionate criminology recognizes the trauma frequently experienced by those with sexual convictions while advocating the intervention to focus on values, strengths, compassion, and other factors significant for human flourishing. Moreover, compassionate criminology aims to reduce harm and sexual victimization by allowing an opportunity for repair. The chapter considers the experience of imprisonment and the efficacy of intervention.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

22. White-collar and corporate crime  

Michael Levi and Nicholas Lord

This chapter covers the changing conceptions of crime and social order in correlation with the character and quality of everyday life in contemporary Britain. It presents elements of change that involve notions of durability and persistence. The contemporary landscapes of sources of harm, uncertainty, or tribulation that attend people’s everyday lives are diverse and bear upon different lives and different habitats in very distinct and unequal ways. As measured by victimization surveys and other means, fear of crime always had as its primary object threats to personal safety in public space. The chapter also considers the contentions surrounding the notion of security and public safety.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

14. Discrimination and Health and Safety  

This chapter considers the employment law aspects of discrimination and health and safety. It discusses the meaning of the protected characteristics which were brought together under the Equality Act 2010 and considers prohibited conduct under the Act. It explains the difference between direct and indirect discrimination and when direct discrimination can be justified. The chapter discusses the difference between positive action and positive discrimination and the interaction between protected characteristics and prohibited conduct. It also explains the law relating to harassment and victimization. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the law covering health and safety in the workplace, looking at both criminal law and civil law.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

10. Introduction to Employment Equality Law  

This chapter examines the pros and cons of interfering in the labour market via the promulgation of anti-discrimination laws. It evaluates the basic theoretical constructs which are relevant to a proper understanding of anti-discrimination law in the UK and the EU, including the possible policy responses (e.g. the distinction between formal equality and substantive equality). It briefly assesses the historical development of anti-discrimination laws in the workplace, and then analyses key statutory concepts such as direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment, and sexual harassment. Finally, the chapter considers victimization—an important issue since there is little purpose in statutory concepts if the employer can intimidate the employee, thus preventing him/her from bringing or continuing proceedings on one of these bases and/or by subjecting him/her to retaliation.

Chapter

Cover Criminology Skills

3. Statistics and official publications  

A number of government and other official agencies collect statistics that provide insight into the extent of criminal behaviour, and produce reports that explore issues such as the impact of crime; policy considerations concerning responses to crime; and evaluations of the work of the various agencies involved in the criminal justice system, such as the police, the courts, prisons, and the probation service. This chapter describes the various types of statistics and reports available, explains how they can be used in the study of criminology, and details where they can be found.

Chapter

Cover Understanding Deviance

11. Feminist Criminology  

This chapter deals with feminist criminology and the critique of a traditionally masculine-driven discipline. It considers feminist arguments about the relationship between the criminality of women and their subordinate position and life experiences and the role of gender in theories of crime and deviance. It first considers Carol Smart’s views, as well as those of other theorists such as O. Pollak, W. I. Thomas, L. Gelsthorpe, and A. Morris. It then examines substantive areas where significant work has been accomplished in the field of feminist criminology: the ‘female emancipation leads to crime’ debate; the invalidation of the ‘leniency’ hypothesis; the relations between gender, crime, and social control; gender-specific crime; the increased prominence of the female victim in political and academic analysis; the gendered nature of victimization and criminalization; male violence; and intersectionality of class-race-gender inequalities. It concludes with a review of criticisms against feminist criminology.