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Chapter

Cover International Criminal Law

2. Principles of State jurisdiction  

This chapter discusses the basic principles of national jurisdiction to prosecute crimes. Despite the growth of international courts and tribunals, no international criminal court has jurisdiction over all international crimes wherever committed. Thus, in practice, international criminal law will largely rely on prosecutions conducted before national courts, making the extent of national criminal jurisdiction a topic of vital importance. The chapter begins by introducing the different forms of jurisdiction and some basic distinctions. It then provides an overview of the theory of national prescriptive jurisdiction based on ‘links’ or ‘nexus’ between the crime and the prescribing State; outlines the principle of ‘universal jurisdiction to prescribe’ and its controversies; and looks to treaty-based systems of ‘quasi-universal’ jurisdiction over international crimes.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

4. The Duty of Care: Introduction and Development  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This Chapter introduces the notion of the ‘duty of care’ in negligence, and tracks its emergence and development through a series of important cases, including analysis of the Supreme Court’s most recent analysis of the duty of care. It explores the issues relating to liability, principle and policy, incremental development and the Caparo test, and incrementalism and established principle. The chapter concludes with consideration of the special case of omissions and positive duties to act.

Chapter

Cover International Law

5. Jurisdiction  

This chapter discusses the international legal concept of jurisdiction as well as the content of the relevant legal principles. The term jurisdiction relates to the authority of a state to exert its influence and power—in practice make, apply and enforce its rules—and create an impact or consequence on individuals or property. The chapter explains the difference between, respectively, the jurisdiction to prescribe and the jurisdiction to enforce and the main elements thereof. It analyses the different principles of prescriptive jurisdiction (the principle of territoriality, nationality, universality, protection and so-called passive personality) and discusses the issue of concurring jurisdictions as well as jurisdiction on ships and aircraft. It also discusses the prohibition on enforcing jurisdiction on the territory of another state as well as the legal consequences of violating that prohibition.

Chapter

Cover International Law

5. Jurisdiction  

This chapter discusses the international legal concept of jurisdiction as well as the content of the relevant legal principles. The term jurisdiction relates to the authority of a state to exert its influence and power—in practice make, apply and enforce its rules—and create an impact or consequence on individuals or property. The chapter explains the difference between, respectively, the jurisdiction to prescribe and the jurisdiction to enforce and the main elements thereof. It analyses the different principles of prescriptive jurisdiction (the principle of territoriality, nationality, universality, protection and so-called passive personality) and discusses the issue of concurring jurisdictions as well as jurisdiction on ships and aircraft. It also discusses the prohibition on enforcing jurisdiction on the territory of another state as well as the legal consequences of violating that prohibition.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Law

18. The Protection of Human Rights  

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalà

This chapter surveys the process of emergence of human rights law in the post-1945 era, focusing on the major milestones, the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the two 1966 International Covenants, and the establishment of several regional mechanisms in Europe, the Americas, and Africa. It emphasizes the tension between traditional international law and the development of human rights as a ground-breaking doctrine after the Second World War. In essence the human rights doctrines force States to give account of how they treat all individuals, including their nationals; this make States accountable for how they administer justice, run prisons, and so on. Potentially, it can subvert their domestic orders and requires them to adhere to minimum standards agreed at international level. As a further consequence, human rights doctrines have altered the traditional configuration of the international community as driven only by the interests of States.

Chapter

Cover International Law

5. Inside the State  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter examines the limits of State jurisdiction under international law. It begins by considering the limits of a State's legislative jurisdiction, its jurisdiction to prescribe laws. It covers jurisdiction over territory; maritime jurisdiction; jurisdiction over nationals; protective jurisdiction; universal jurisdiction; and other extra-territorial extensions of jurisdiction. The discussions then turn to treaty-based jurisdiction; competing and conflicting jurisdiction; extradition and legal co-operation; resolving jurisdictional conflicts; and immunities and other limitations on the exercise of a State's jurisdiction.

Chapter

Cover Cases & Materials on International Law

6. International Human Rights Law  

Human rights are a matter of international law, as the rights of humans do not depend on an individual’s nationality and so the protection of these rights cannot be limited to the jurisdiction of any one State. This chapter introduces the principal ideas, issues and framework of international human rights law. It discusses human rights theories; human rights and the international community; international protection of human rights; regional human rights protections; limitations on the human rights treaty obligations of States; the right of self-determination; and the protection of human rights by non-State actors.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

4. The International Bill of Human Rights  

This chapter analyses the history and principles of the International Bill of Human Rights, which is the ethical and legal basis for all the human rights work of the United Nations. The Bill consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, two Optional Protocols annexed thereto, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and Protocol. The chapter also assesses whether the Bill of Human Rights has lived up to the expectations of the original proponents.

Chapter

Cover International Law

8. Jurisdiction  

This chapter studies jurisdiction. The term ‘jurisdiction’ is generally understood by international lawyers as describing the extent, and limits, of the legal competence of a State, entity, or regulatory authority, to make, apply, and enforce legal rules with respect to persons, property, and other matters. Jurisdiction is the necessary corollary to State sovereignty under modern international law, for it represents the exercise of authority of that State in relation to conduct, or to consequences of events, that it deems itself competent to regulate. The quintessential areas of regulation that would be regarded as falling within the domestic jurisdiction of a State include the setting of conditions for the grant of nationality and the conditions under which aliens (non-nationals) may enter a State’s territory. The chapter then distinguishes the types of jurisdiction: prescriptive jurisdiction, enforcement jurisdiction, and adjudicative jurisdiction.

Chapter

Cover International Law Concentrate

6. Sovereignty and jurisdiction  

This chapter briefly looks at the nature of sovereignty and its parameters in international law, but essentially focuses on the function and nature of jurisdiction. It first examines the breadth of the space in which sovereignty is exercised; namely, land, sea, and air. Thereafter, it assesses territorial jurisdiction (in both its objective and subjective dimensions) and examines the practice of the four extraterritorial principles of jurisdiction; namely, nationality-based, the protective principle, passive personality, and universal jurisdiction. The chapter then considers instances where national courts refuse to exercise their ordinary jurisdiction, namely, instances where the accused is covered by the privilege of immunity or because his or her arrest was illegal. Finally, it looks at the US practice of extraterritorial jurisdiction, whereby sometimes the sovereignty of other nations has been breached.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Concentrate

1. Introduction  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter begins with an overview of human rights and how ideas about rights have changed over time, from the intellectual enlightenment of the eighteenth century that emphasised the connection between natural rights and dignity, to the rise of consequentialist philosophers in the nineteenth century who challenged natural rights and insisted on the promotion of a common good or welfare. It then considers the historical development of rights and the emergence of international protection of human rights in the twentieth century as a result of war and atrocity, focusing on the war crime trials and the formation of the United Nations after the Second World War. The chapter also looks at the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the creation of treaties as well as regional agreements, before concluding with an assessment of human rights today and categories of rights, along with human rights in the UK.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Law

19. The Repression of International Crimes  

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalà

This chapter begins with an overview of international crimes, namely, offences entailing the personal criminal liability of the individuals concerned (as opposed to the responsibility of the State) under international law. International crimes include war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, torture, aggression, and terrorism. The discussion then turns to the prosecution and punishment by State courts, focusing on the grounds of criminal jurisdiction and in particular universal criminal jurisdiction. It ends with an overview of the prosecution and punishment by international criminal courts and tribunals, with an emphasis on the International Criminal Court, and with an assessment of the main problems besetting international criminal proceedings.

Chapter

Cover Principles of Banking Law

3. Prudential Regulation II: Structural Reform, Deposit Insurance, Corporate Governance  

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter discusses bank structural reform. Most structural reform initiatives that have been undertaken since 2008 were aimed at reversing the effects of the repeal of the Glass–Steagall Act in the late 1990s and of the EU legislation that promoted universal banking. The chapter first considers the financial stability concerns and the mechanics of contemporary structural reform legislation in the USA, the UK, and the EU, and the actual legal framework underpinning these reforms. It then covers the regulation of bank involvement in derivatives markets. Today, derivatives regulation is a clear part of macroprudential regulation to the extent that centralized clearing and settlement and increased transparency battle opacity and interconnectedness and limit systemic risk. The remainder of the chapter covers deposit insurance, bank corporate governance, risk control, and executive remuneration.

Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

21. Jurisdictional competence  

Jurisdiction refers to a state’s competence under international law to regulate the conduct of natural and juridical persons. The notion of regulation includes the activity of all branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. This chapter discusses prescriptive jurisdiction over crimes, civil prescriptive jurisdiction, the separateness of the grounds of jurisdiction, and enforcement jurisdiction.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

1. History  

Ed Bates

This chapter traces the historical development of the concept of human rights and their status in international law. It first discusses human rights on the domestic plane, focusing on the key developments since the late eighteenth century, and then examines international law from the perspective of human rights over the period up to the Second World War. Finally, the chapter considers the efforts to create a universal system of human rights protection in the 1940s, culminating with the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

23. Particular sectors  

This chapter deals with four issues. First it will briefly examine three sectors of the economy that are wholly or partly excluded from EU competition law, namely nuclear energy, military equipment and agriculture; the special regime that once existed for coal and steel products under the former European Coal and Steel Community (‘the ECSC’) Treaty is also mentioned in passing. Secondly, it will explain the application of the EU competition rules apply to the transport sector. Thirdly, the chapter will consider the specific circumstances of four so-called ‘regulated industries’, electronic communications, post, energy and water, where a combination of legislation, regulation and competition law seek to promote competition. Last, but by no means least, the current debate concerning digital platforms is discussed where it is likely that ex ante regulatory rules will be introduced, both in the EU and the UK, to address concerns about anti-competitive conduct and a tendency towards the monopolisation of markets.