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Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Zurich Insurance Co. Ltd plc v Hayward [2017] AC 142; [2016] UKSC 48  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Zurich Insurance Co. Ltd plc v Hayward [2016] UKSC 48. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Zurich Insurance Co. Ltd plc v Hayward [2017] AC 142; [2016] UKSC 48  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Zurich Insurance Co. Ltd plc v Hayward [2016] UKSC 48. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

1. Introduction  

Evidence is information by which facts tend to be proved, and the law of evidence is that body of law and discretion regulating the means by which facts may be proved in both courts of law and tribunals and arbitrations in which the strict rules of evidence apply. This introductory chapter discusses truth and the fact-finding process and explains how getting to the truth in court is hampered by practical constraints, the adversarial system, the rules of evidence themselves, and the fact that litigation is a human endeavour that necessarily provides scope for differences of opinion, error, deceit, and lies. The chapter also contains a brief history of the development of the law to date.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

8. Establishing and Analysing Facts  

This chapter deals with the issue of facts in a legal case. Effective litigation requires close attention to establishing and analysing the facts relevant to a case, and an ability to understand and address the problems that dealing with facts can present. It is a vital function of the lawyer to be proactive in gathering, sifting, proving, and presenting the facts. The chapter discusses the challenges of establishing truth and ways to address problems with facts; establishing facts; the stages at which factual information is likely to become available (e.g. the first meeting between the lawyer and the client or following pre-action exchange of information); managing and analyzing facts; identifying and dealing with those gaps in facts; and the interaction of facts and law. The final section explains how to build a factual framework for a case.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

12. Defamation  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with the law of defamation. The basic rules of the common law of defamation state that: A is liable for saying anything to C about B which would be apt to make an average citizen think worse of the latter. In principle, B can sue A without having to show that what A said was false, that it caused him any harm, or that A was at any way at fault in saying it. The chapter distinguishes between what is ‘defamatory’ and what is not. It discusses the liability for the act of communication is called ‘publication’. It also considers defences: to apparent allegations of fact, the only defences are truth (called ‘justification’) and privilege; for statements of opinion, which cannot be false but at the most simulated, the defence is ‘fair comment on a matter of public interest’.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

21. Defences and remedies in defamation  

This chapter examines the defences that can be used in defamation cases and the remedies that are available to defendants. The defences are of particular importance in this area in terms of protecting the rights and interests of both the public and the defendant (essentially permitting freedom of expression). Principal defences include consent, the assumption of risk, offer of amends, truth, honest opinion, absolute privilege, and qualified privilege. The available remedies for defamation claims are mainly damages and injunctions. This chapter incorporates a discussion of both the Defamation Act 1996 and the Defamation Act 2013 and analyses relevant court cases.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

15. Defamation  

This chapter focuses on defamation which enables an individual (or, more controversially, a company) to prevent the publication of, or recover damages for, public statements which make, or are likely to make, people think less of them. At its heart is a balance between freedom of speech (protected under the European Convention on Human Rights and the Human Rights Act 1998) and the interests of an individual in the protection of their reputation. The chapter examines the Defamation Act 2013 and explains who can sue for, and be liable in, defamation, when a statement is ‘defamatory’ and innuendo. It also considers the defences of truth, honest opinion, publication in a matter of public interest and privilege. It concludes with a discussion of damages for defamation.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Directions

15. Defences to defamation  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Defences to defamation protect freedom of speech in English law. Some of the defences are ‘absolute’ while others are ‘qualified’. Absolute defence means that regardless of how careless the defendant has been in publishing the statement or whether he has been motivated by malice, he is completely protected. Qualified defence applies to a wider range of situations, but fails if the claimant can show that the statement was made ‘maliciously’. This chapter looks at the amendments to the existing defences to defamation contained in the Defamation Act 2013, and the introduction of new defences to protect operators of websites that host user-generated content are also examined.