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Cover Commercial Law

11. The transfer of property and risk  

This chapter discusses the transfer of property between seller and buyer, and considers the passing of risk. The general rule about risk is that unless the parties have otherwise agreed, risk passes with property, although the position is different when the buyer deals as consumer. With regard to payment, unless otherwise agreed, the seller may only sue the buyer for the price once property in the goods has passed, and, if either the seller or the buyer becomes insolvent, then the rights of the other non-insolvent party may depend on whether or not property in the goods has passed to the buyer. Furthermore, although subject to a number of exceptions, unless the buyer has acquired ownership in the goods, he cannot transfer that ownership to another party.


Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Land Law

5. Registered Land  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents questions on registered land under the Land Registration Act (LRA) 2002 and deal with all aspects of registrable interests and two categories of interest which are not registrable substantively, which include minor (registrable interests that can be protected by the entry of a notice on the register), and overriding interests (a list of which is contained in Schedule 3, LRA 2002), alongside the mirror principle.


Cover Equity and Trusts Concentrate

4. Constitution  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. When a person transfers legal title to another, the legal title is said to vest in the other person. This chapter considers the rules for the transfer of title (ownership) in property in relation to different types of property. The general principle is that unless the property has been transferred by the correct legal rules then the transfer fails; it is said to be imperfect. The chapter begins by briefly considering the legal rules in relation to validly transferring property to another person. It then deals with equitable rules which have developed to overcome the strict application of the legal rules of vesting.


Cover Complete Equity and Trusts

4. The formality requirements and incompletely constituted trusts  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter, which is on formality requirements and incompletely constituted trusts, discusses the different formality requirements for different types of property. It states that transactions in land require writing. It also looks at the difference between a declaration of trust and a transfer of property and mentions that the disposition of an equitable interest must be in writing; that contracts to transfer property to trustees can only be enforced by the parties to the contract, not the beneficiaries (incompletely constituted trusts); and that marriage settlements are an exception in that beneficiaries within the marriage consideration may enforce a contract to transfer property to the trustees.


Cover Clarkson & Hill's Conflict of Laws

9. Property  

Jonathan Hill

This chapter considers the choice of law rules for the transfer of property. The rules are structured round a number of distinctions. First, a distinction has to be drawn between movables and immovables. Immovable property, which comprises land and things attached to or growing on the land, is subject to the control of the authorities where it is situated to a much greater extent than movable property, which can be physically removed from one country to another. As regards movables, a further distinction is drawn between tangibles and intangibles. Secondly, the law distinguishes between cases involving the transfer of property on death and cases where property is transferred inter vivos. Thirdly, transfers which arise as a result of marriage should be distinguished from other types of transfer.


Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

3. Passing of property and risk  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the transfer of property and risk from the seller to the buyer as agreed upon in a contract of sale of goods. It explains the difference between ownership and possession and discusses the rules on the passing of property, as well as which party bears the legal risk in cases where, for example, the goods are destroyed or in the event of insolvency. The rules relating to both consumer and non-consumer buyers are included. Finally, the chapter examines the unconditional appropriation of the goods to the contract, appropriation by delivery to a carrier, ascertainment and appropriation ‘by exhaustion’, and undivided shares in goods forming part of a bulk.


Cover The Principles of Equity & Trusts

5. Formalities  

This chapter examines the processes for creating an express trust, which involves two processes. The first involves possible formality requirements relating to the creation of the trust itself, particularly involving trusts of land and testamentary trusts. It also considers how a trust may be valid despite failure to satisfy these requirements, notably where a statute is being used as an instrument of fraud or where a secret trust is recognized. The second process involves the formality requirements which need to be satisfied to ensure that title to property is vested in the trustees, so that the trust is constituted. Constitution of the trust is considered where a settlor declares themself as a trustee and where another party is declared as a trustee. The chapter also examines when Equity may intervene where a trust has not been properly constituted or where a gift has not been validly transferred to a donee.


Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Equity and Trusts

8. Implied and Resulting Trusts  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans, suggested answers, and author commentary. This book offers advice on what to expect in exams and how best to prepare. This chapter covers questions on implied and resulting trusts.


Cover Pearce & Stevens' Trusts and Equitable Obligations

6. Constitution of trusts  

This chapter covers the constitution of trusts. A trust can be created in two ways: by the owner of property becoming a trustee himself or herself or by transferring property to someone else, and, at the same time, imposing a trust on them. In the first instance, a trust will be created if the person who holds the legal title to property free of any existing trust effectively declares themselves trustee of it in favour of specified beneficiaries. On the other hand, if the legal owner of property, the settlor, wishes to subject it to a trust in favour of beneficiaries, but does not wish to serve as trustee themselves, they can create a trust by transferring the property to someone else. In such circumstances, the original owner ceases to have any interest in the property, and the transferee of the property receives it as trustee subject to the trust obligations.


Cover Equity & Trusts Law Directions

16. Resulting and constructive trusts  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. A resulting trust refers to a trust under which, in certain circumstances, the beneficial interest jumps back to the settlor. Resulting trusts are created in accordance with the presumed intention of the settlor or donor and are enforced against the personal wishes of the constructive trustee. Under s 53(2) of the Law of Property Act 1925, the creation or operation of resulting, implied or constructive trusts is not subject to any written formality. This chapter deals with resulting and constructive trusts, and how they differ from each other. It examines how the law of resulting trusts applies to the many contexts in which they occur, the nature of constructive trusts, presumed resulting trusts on a voluntary transfer, constructive trusts in comparison with fiduciary liability to account, illegality and the presumption of a resulting trust, the presumption of advancement and the range of situations in which constructive trusts are to be found. The chapter also discusses presumed resulting trusts where express trusts do not exhaust the whole of the beneficial interest.


Cover Commercial Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Commercial Law Concentrate is supported by extensive online resources to take your learning further. It has been written by experts and covers all the key topics so you can approach your exams with confidence. The clear, succinct coverage enables you to quickly grasp the fundamental principles of this area of law and helps you to succeed in exams. This guide has been rigorously reviewed and is endorsed by students and lecturers for level of coverage, accuracy, and exam advice. It is clear, concise, and easy to use, helping you to get the most out of your revision. After an introduction to contracts of the sale of goods, the book covers: statutory implied terms; passing of property and risk; retention of title clauses; exclusion and limitation clauses; non-existence and perishing of goods; transfer of ownership by a non-owner; delivery, acceptance, and payment; remedies of the unpaid seller; remedies of the buyer; consumer credit; the creation of agency and the agent’s authority; and the relationships created by agency—the rights and liabilities of the parties.


Cover Competition Law

19. The relationship between intellectual property rights and competition law  

This chapter considers the relationship between intellectual property rights and competition law. After a brief introduction, it deals in general terms with the application of Article 101 to licences of intellectual property rights. The chapter proceeds to discuss the provisions of Regulation 316/2014, the block exemption for technology transfer agreements. It also considers the application of Article 101 to various other agreements concerning intellectual property rights such as technology pools and settlements of litigation. This is followed by a section on the application of Article 102 to the way in which dominant undertakings exercise their intellectual property rights, including an examination of the controversial subject of refusals to license intellectual property rights which are sometimes found to be abusive. The chapter concludes with a look at the position in UK competition law.