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Chapter

Cover Business Law

24. Intellectual Property and Data Protection  

The final chapter in the book examines matters relating to the intellectual property created and/or owned by a business and their responsibilities for the data they access and/or produce. Given the value of the outputs from the intellectual creativity of persons (software programs, books, music recordings etc.), this chapter outlines the rights available to protect them and the consequences for infringement. It first identifies the law surrounding creative ideas and work (copyright) before a product’s appearance (design rights) is considered. The chapter continues by assessing the protection of a brand name and image (trademarks) and finishes the substantive issues through examination of inventive ideas and works (patents). Confusion of the public through the unlawful use of an existing business’ name or product can result in the tortious liability of ‘passing-off’. Intellectual property is produced by employees and the consequences of employment status for the rights to exploit the property must be effectively managed. The chapter concludes with an assessment of developments in data protection—the GDPR, Data Protection Act, and the tactics available to businesses to avoid transgression of the law.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

14. Branding, trademarks, and domain names  

This chapter examines the role of trademarks in the creation of brand portfolios online, including internet addresses or domain names. It first provides an overview of branding and trademarks in the global business environment, trademark characteristics, and the distinction between registered and unregistered trademarks, and then looks at domain names as address tools and brand identifiers. The chapter also considers early disputes over rightful ownership of trademarks and domain names, examining the development of cybersquatting case law before the UK and US courts. It discusses the allocation of new generic top-level domains under the New gTLD procedure and examines the legal safeguards for trademark holders under the procedure. The primary focus of the chapter is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy and its domestic counterpart in the UK, the Nominet Dispute Resolution Service.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

15. Brand identities, search engines, and secondary markets  

This chapter examines brand identities, search engines, and secondary markets and their operation in the information society. It considers jurisdiction and online trademark disputes, as well as search engine optimization and the role of Google and the impact of its search engine services on brand profile and market presence. The chapter goes on to examine secondary markets and the liability of sellers of counterfeit products for the abuse of trademarks. The chapter concludes with a summary of the changing nature of online branding and the diminishing impact of domain names to cement brand identity, as well as the growing influence of developments to web browser functionality on consumer behaviour.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

8. Intellectual property rights and the information society  

This chapter examines intellectual property rights (IPRs) in relation to the information society. The discussion begins with an overview of IPRs involving copyright, patents, trademarks, and the database right, and then considers IPRs and the process of digitization within the framework of cyberlaw. It mentions the criticism received for overprotecting content or systems in the information society and discusses the idea of an over-reliance on models developed for a previous age and for different challenges in dealing with the information economy and society. It concludes by highlighting the tension between the information society and the intellectual property industry in terms of what each wants and expects: liberty, free use of content, and unfettered free expression for the former; and protection, control over use, and abuse and reward for the latter.

Book

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law
Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law provides readers with a clear introduction to UK intellectual property law, whilst carefully placing the law in its global context and acknowledging the influence of EU and other international jurisdictions over its development. The book examines the methods and reasoning behind key statutory and case decisions, and provides readers with real-life examples of intellectual property law in action, helping to bring the subject to life. Recent developments within the law relating to biotechnology patenting, IT and internet, and trade mark, imaging, and character rights are explored, providing readers with a cutting-edge analysis of the subject. Chapter introductions and concluding overviews help to set the scene and provide a succinct summary of the topic areas, whilst lists of annotated further reading offer the perfect starting point for those who wish to explore a topic further. In this, its ninth edition, the book integrates the recent developments on the Unitary Patent; examines the reform of copyright, both EU (the fundamental cases from the CJEU) and domestic; and the recast of the Trade Mark Directive.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

12. Licensing Agreements and Other Agreements Involving Intellectual Property Rights  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter examines some of the different types of intellectual property rights (IPRs) before outlining the relationship between intellectual property and both EU competition law and the EU free movement rules. It focuses, however, on IP licensing agreements and their treatment under Article 101. The chapter traces the development of EU competition policy to IP licensing agreements and examine the current Technology Transfer Block Exemption and the Guidelines in detail. It also examines patent settlement agreements (including pay for delay agreements), patent pools, trademark licences, trademark delimitation agreements, and copyright (other than software) licences not covered by the TTBER and Guidelines.

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

11. Intellectual property and data protection  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the law on intellectual property and data protection. The law of copyright is governed by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act (CDPA) 1988 that protects original materials including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic works, and typographical arrangements. The Trade Marks Act 1994 protects the owner of any sign capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of another. Registration of a patent prevents others from making, using, or selling the same product without permission. The protection lasts for five-year periods (to a maximum of 20 years). The changes introduced through the Data Protection Act 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation, the Law Enforcement Directive and the Intellectual Property (Unjustified Threats) Act 2017 are also discussed.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

19. The relationship between intellectual property rights and competition law  

This chapter considers the relationship between intellectual property rights and competition law. After a brief introduction, it deals in general terms with the application of Article 101 to licences of intellectual property rights. The chapter proceeds to discuss the provisions of Regulation 316/2014, the block exemption for technology transfer agreements. It also considers the application of Article 101 to various other agreements concerning intellectual property rights such as technology pools and settlements of litigation. This is followed by a section on the application of Article 102 to the way in which dominant undertakings exercise their intellectual property rights, including an examination of the controversial subject of refusals to license intellectual property rights which are sometimes found to be abusive. The chapter concludes with a look at the position in UK competition law.