1-20 of 30 Results

  • Keyword: trade mark law x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

26. Trade marks—infringement and revocation  

This chapter discusses the law on trade mark infringement and revocation. Section 10 of the Trade Marks Act 1994 establishes the basic criteria for an infringement action. If a mark is already on the Trade Marks Register, it is an infringement to use the same mark for the same goods or services. The grant of a trade mark lasts initially for 10 years from the date of its registration, and this may be renewed for a seemingly indefinite number of further periods of 10 years thereafter on payment of the appropriate fee. There are four grounds listed in s. 46(1) of the 1994 Act for revocation: (i) five years’ lack of genuine use of the mark in the UK without cause; (ii) a suspension for the same period (after initial use); (iii) the mark has become the common name for the product in question in the trade; and (iv) if the mark has been used in a misleading manner, especially as to the nature, quality, or origin of the goods or services in question.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

13. Trade marks 1: key features, theoretical underpinnings, and the national, EU, and international regimes  

This chapter introduces the key features of registered trade mark law, highlighting core aspects of registered trade mark protection and differences to other IP rights. It discusses the theoretical underpinnings for registered trade mark protection and accompanying policy tensions, particularly ongoing debates over whether registered trade mark protection should focus on the origin function of the mark or also extend to other trade mark functions associated with the creation and maintenance of brand investment and brand image. The chapter introduces the legal regime for the protection of trade marks from an international, EU, and UK perspective, and considers the impact of Brexit on registered trade mark law. The chapter also outlines the various international treaties relevant to the protection of trade marks.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

13. Trade marks 1: key features, theoretical underpinnings, and the national, EU, and international regimes  

This chapter introduces the key features of registered trade mark law, highlighting core aspects of registered trade mark protection and its differences to other IP rights. It discusses the theoretical underpinnings for registered trade mark protection and also the accompanying policy tensions, in the context of an increasingly visible place of brands in society. The chapter introduces the legal regime for the protection of trade marks from an international, EU, and national (UK) perspective. Reflecting relevant agreements and treaties, the chapter outlines various standards established for the protection of trade marks, along with the systems by virtue of which traders can register and protect marks in many countries throughout the world.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

14. Registration and Use of the Trade Mark  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter discusses the acquisition of a trade mark. EU law distinguishes between the product or service to which the trade mark is applied on the one hand, and the trade mark on the other hand. One needs first of all to be in the presence of a sign, something that can be applied to the product or service and that can convey information. The cornerstone of the matter is that the sign should be distinctive as to origin. The main objective of trade mark law is to enable rights holders and consumers to distinguish the source of identical goods or services with a different origin. The remainder of the chapter covers unregistrable marks, absolute grounds for refusal of registration, relative grounds for refusal of registration, applying for a Community trade mark, and uses of trade marks.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

24. Trade marks—an introduction  

This chapter discusses the historical roots of trade marks, the need for reform, and the rationale of a system of trade marks. Over the last decades, trade mark law has been harmonized in Europe; in the UK, the Trade Marks Act 1994 saw a sea change in the law of trade marks.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

15. Infringement and Revocation of the Trade Mark  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter considers EU law on trade mark infringement. The basic criteria for an infringement action are established by Article 5 of the Trade Mark Directive and Article 9 of the Trade Mark Regulation. If a mark is already on the register, it is an infringement to use the same mark for the same goods or services. If either, or both, of the two marks and the product in question are similar rather than identical, there will be an infringement if the later use of the earlier mark is likely to cause confusion to the public. Finally, unauthorized use of an identical or a similar mark, even on totally different goods, will also be an infringement if the repute of the original mark would be harmed by such a use. The remainder of the chapter deals with the three main paragraphs on infringement, Articles 5(1)(a), (b) and (2) in the Directive and Article 9(1)(a), (b) and (c) of the Regulation respectively, each of which deal with a different form of trade mark infringement. This is followed by discussions of exceptions to infringement and the revocation and invalidity of trade marks.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

25. Trade marks—registrability and use  

This chapter discusses the conditions that must be met before a sign can be registered as a trade mark. The Trade Marks Act 1994 defines a ‘trade mark’ as ‘any sign capable of being represented graphically which is capable of distinguishing goods or services of one undertaking from those of another’. No mark can be registered unless it satisfies the two vital, but related, factors of being a sign and also capable of distinguishing one trader’s products from those of others. The impact of the removal of the requirement that a sign is capable of being represented graphically from the text of the articles of the Directive is also examined.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

27. Trade marks—European and international aspects  

This chapter discusses the international and European aspects of trade marks. Trade mark law is based on the Paris Convention and the TRIPS Agreement, with the Madrid system offering an international registration system. Inside the EU, one can also register a single trade mark for the whole of the Community by means of the Community Trade Mark Regulation. Trade mark law also has a substantial interaction with the Treaty provisions on the free movement of goods, but minimal conflict with competition law.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

9. Trade marks  

This chapter studies trade marks, considering the historical uses of trade marks and the development of UK trade mark law. The way in which trade marks are used has, in some ways, changed little, even though trading conditions today are far removed from those of previous times. Although medieval use was primarily to guarantee quality, use since the Industrial Revolution has been to tell the consumer about the origin of the goods. Meanwhile, the legal history of trade marks shows that the principles articulated in the early cases continue to influence today's law. There is the perennial concern that trade marks create unfair monopolies. The chapter then looks at the commercial functions fulfilled by trade marks in the age of the consumer, with the objective of showing the dilemma inherent in trade mark law. It also examines how EU reforms have impacted on domestic trade mark law.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

19. Designs  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter considers design law in the EU. Designs have something to do with shape and they are closely linked with the concept of a trade mark for a three-dimensional shape. Under the Community Designs Regulation, a single registered design right is granted in essence and this is done for the whole of the EU. That system is administered by the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM), which also administers the Community trade mark (Article 2 of the Regulation). As with the Community trade mark, the Community design right has a unitary character (Article 1(3) of the Regulation). The remainder of the chapter discusses the requirements for the grant of a registered design; grounds for refusal of registration; rights of the owner and infringement; ownership of and entitlement to a registered design; grounds for invalidity of a registered design; duration of the registered design right; and international commercial exploitation of registered designs.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Concentrate

9. Passing-off and trade marks  

Passing-off is a common law cause of action that protects traders with goodwill in their business against misrepresentations made by their competitors which confuse customers as to the source of goods or services. The typical passing-off scenario is where a trader, by the use of a brand name, logo, slogan, or packaging, deceives customers into thinking that its products or services are associated with another trader. Trade marks can be registered for signs or symbols that identify products or services as coming from a particular trader, so to be registrable a trade mark must be distinctive of a trader’s goods and not similar to any earlier registered mark, or a non-registered mark that is in use. Registration of a trade mark gives substantial advantages over relying on passing-off. The law of registered trade marks has been harmonized by the European Union.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

7. Trade Marks II: The Relative Grounds for Refusal of Registration, Infringement, and Remedies  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the relative grounds for refusal to register a trade mark; acts that constitute infringement; and remedies for infringement. It considers the finding of the Court of Justice of the EU that the investment, advertising, and commercial functions of a trade mark will be protected as well as its role as a badge of origin in cases of ‘double identity’ under the Trade Marks Directive and domestic law. The chapter considers possible changes to the position under the new Trade Marks Directive and following the UK’s departure from the EU. It looks at cases in which a third party is deemed to have taken unfair advantage of a trade mark with a reputation. It also discusses the use of trade marks on the internet and the implications for findings of infringement.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

8. Trade Marks III:Defences, the Loss of a Trade Mark, and Exhaustion of Rights  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter considers the limitations of the protection afforded by trade mark registration. It discusses the defences to infringement set out in Article 6 of the Trade Marks Directive and section 11 of the Trade Marks Act 1994; trade marks and comparative advertising; the ways in which it is possible to lose registered trade mark protection (through revocation and a finding of invalidity); and how trade mark rights might be exhausted.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

20. Trade mark issues  

This chapter focuses on trade mark protection in the United Kingdom and its operation in the context of Internet related activities. Trade marks constitute a key component of the system of intellectual property rights. The present law is to be found in the Trade Marks Act 1994, which was introduced in order to enable the United Kingdom to comply with its obligations under the 1988 EC Directive to Approximate the Laws of the Member States Relating to Trade Marks. The chapter discusses the effect of trade marks; the doctrine of passing off; trade marks and information technology; Internet-related trade mark disputes; the uniform dispute resolution rules; and trade marks and Internet search engines.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

42. Exploitation and Use of Trade Marks  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter is concerned with the exploitation and use of trade marks under the Trade Marks Act 1994. It first considers the ownership of trade marks and ‘unregistered marks’ and the problems that arise in relation to co-ownership. It then describes the ways in which trade marks and ‘unregistered marks’ can be exploited (self-exploitation, assignment, voluntary licences, compulsory licences, mortgages, testamentary dispositions) as well as the limitations placed on the uses that can be made of a trade mark. Registration of interests and transactions is also discussed, and UK competition law is compared with that in Europe. In addition, the chapter presents a list of terms that are commonly used in trade mark licence agreements and the approach that competition law takes towards them. Finally, it outlines trade mark delimitation agreements.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

8. Passing off  

This chapter explores the tort of passing off which protects the goodwill of a trader from misrepresentation. In the United Kingdom, there is no obligation to register a trade mark. Protection has always been available at common law for marks in use, by means of the action for passing off. There are three elements of passing off. First a trader must establish that the trader has a goodwill or reputation attached to the goods or services which the trader supplies. Second, the trader must demonstrate that the defendant has made a misrepresentation leading or likely to lead the public to believe that the goods or services offered by the defendant are the goods or services of the claimant. Lastly, the trader must demonstrate that the trader has suffered or is likely to suffer damage by reason of the erroneous belief caused by the defendant's misrepresentation. These three elements are interdependent.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

14. Trade marks 2: definition of a registrable trade mark, absolute grounds for refusal and invalidation, and revocation  

This chapter examines the definition of a registrable trade mark, absolute grounds for refusal or invalidation of a registered trade mark, the extent to which objections can be overcome through proof of distinctiveness acquired through use and the rules on revocation of a registered trade mark, both at national and EU levels. It examines these issues looking at many different kinds of trade mark, from traditional work marks and logos to so-called ‘non-conventional’ trade marks such as three-dimensional product shapes, sounds, smells, colours, and ‘position’ marks. The chapter reflects evolving legislation at an EU level (particularly the EU’s 2015 trade mark reform package), a rich base of case law, and links to the the theroetical debates seen in Chapter 13.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

6. Trade Marks I: Justifications, Registration, and Absolute Grounds for Refusal of Registration  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the main justifications for the protection of registered trade marks. It considers the substantive law relating to the subject matter of registration as set out in the Trade Marks Directive (2016), its predecessor and domestic law. It looks at which signs will be registered as well as the absolute grounds for refusal of registration and at the Court of Justice of the European Union and domestic case law interpreting these grounds. The practicalities of the trade mark registration process both domestically and internationally are also considered. The chapter then looks at the relationship between registered marks and the public domain.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

28. Tortious protection of intellectual property rights  

This chapter discusses the ways in which the common law, in the form of the law of tort, creates rights of action. It focuses on the torts of passing off and malicious falsehood, although attention is also paid to the ways in which defamation can assist. These rights are supplementary, and complementary, to the statutory formal rights. In particular, trade mark law and passing off closely overlap, although s. 2(2) of the Trade Marks Act 1994 preserves passing off as a separate cause of action.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

31. Character merchandising  

Character merchandising does not have much in the way of specific recognition in UK law. In response, the character merchandising industry has sought legal protection via the adaptation of other intellectual property rights and their application to the merchandising field. This chapter discusses how copyright, trade mark law, and various torts combine to confer legal protection on character merchandising.