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Chapter

Cover Sealy & Worthington's Text, Cases, and Materials in Company Law

10. Shares  

This chapter discusses the duties and liabilities of the company’s auditors. These duties derive from contract, tort and statute.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

11. Conversion  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with the tort of conversion. Conversion is best regarded as the tort which protects the owner of goods not against their being damaged (negligence covers that) but against their being dealt with or detained against his will. It is concerned with loss of goods rather than damage to them. The chapter discusses what goods can be converted; what entitlements the claimant in conversion must show; liability in conversion; remedies, such as the return of the goods or damages or both; and length of protection provided to the legal owner of goods.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

3. Establishing Liability in Principle: Duty of Care  

This chapter discusses the following: the duty concept and the elements of the tort of negligence; formulating the duty of care; kinds of damage; the manner of infliction; and the way in which the notion of duty confines liability by reference to the nature of the parties involved.

Book

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law
Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. Essential Cases provides you with succinct summaries of some of the landmark and most influential cases in tort law. Each summary begins with a review of the main case facts and decision. The summary is then concluded with expert commentary on the case from the author, Craig Purshouse, including his assessment of the wider questions raised by the decision.

Book

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law
Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. Essential Cases provides you with succinct summaries of some of the landmark and most influential cases in tort law. Each summary begins with a review of the main case facts and decision. The summary is then concluded with expert commentary on the case from the author, Craig Purshouse, including his assessment of the wider questions raised by the decision.

Book

Cover Tort Law
All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. Tort Law: Text, Cases, and Materials combines incisive commentary with carefully selected extracts from primary and secondary materials to provide a balance of support and encouragement. This volume starts by introducing the fundamental principles of the subject before moving on to discuss more challenging issues, hoping to encourage a full understanding of the subject and an appreciation of the more complex debates surrounding the law of tort. The text starts by providing an overview. Various torts are then arranged along a spectrum from intentional torts, through negligence, to stricter liabilities. Also considered are issues relating to damages, compensation, limitation, and vicarious liability. After introducing intentional torts, the book looks at the tort of negligence. Chapters also cover nuisance and duties relating to land and defamation and privacy. Finally, stricter liabilities are examined such as product liability.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

7. Contribution Between Tortfeasors  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter considers cases involving several torts and severable persons who are liable. It describes ‘joint and several liability’, where several different torts may be contributing to the same harm and several persons are liable for what they have independently done, since in principle, everyone whose tortious conduct has contributed to the occurrence of harm is liable to be sued for the full amount of that harm, provided it is indivisible and not too remote. The chapter also discusses how a tortfeasor who is sued and wishes to claim contribution should bring any other supposed tortfeasor into the victim's suit. Likewise, the victim should sue every plausible tortfeasor, because if he brings a second action in respect of the same damage he risks being penalised in costs, and if he loses against one defendant and succeeds against another, he will get all his costs paid by the latter.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

13. Nuisance  

Private nuisance is defined as any substantial and unreasonable interference with the claimant’s land, or with his rights to peaceful enjoyment of that land and any right that exists in connection with it. It need not result from ‘direct’ or ‘intentional’ interference; it is sufficient that the defendant have ‘adopted or continued’ a state of affairs that constitutes an unreasonable interference. This chapter discusses the basis of liability in private nuisance; the concept of unreasonable interference and the difference between this concept and the notion of ‘reasonableness’ in negligence; who can sue and who can be sued; defences; and remedies. It also discusses, in outline, public nuisance; the relationship between nuisance and other forms of liability; and nuisance and protection of the environment.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

10. Defences to negligence  

This chapter discusses three key defences in the tort of negligence: voluntary assumption of risk (consent or volenti non fit injuria), contributory negligence and illegality. The defence of voluntary assumption of risk is based on the common-sense notion that ‘one who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers it, complain of it as a wrong’. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants injured while committing unlawful activities. Contributory negligence is a defence that operates not to defeat the claimant’s claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

20. Vicarious liability  

This chapter examines the principle of vicarious liability, a form of secondary liability through which employers may, in certain circumstances, be liable for the torts of their employees, even though the employer themselves may be entirely blameless. The imposition of vicarious liability is one of the most important exceptions to the general approach of the common law whereby liability for any wrongdoing is imposed on, and only on, the wrongdoer(s). A defendant will not be vicariously liable unless the following conditions are met: (a) there is an employer–employee relationship (or one akin to this) between the defendant and the person for whose actions they are being held liable; and (b) a close connection between this relationship and the tortious wrongdoing of the employee

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

10. Defences to negligence  

This chapter discusses three key defences in the tort of negligence: voluntary assumption of risk (consent or volenti non fit injuria), contributory negligence and illegality. The defence of voluntary assumption of risk is based on the common-sense notion that ‘one who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers it, complain of it as a wrong’. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants injured while committing unlawful activities. Contributory negligence is a defence that operates not to defeat the claimant’s claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

20. Vicarious liability  

This chapter examines the principle of vicarious liability, a form of secondary liability through which employers may, in certain circumstances, be liable for the torts of their employees, even though the employer themselves may be entirely blameless. The imposition of vicarious liability is one of the most important exceptions to the general approach of the common law whereby liability for any wrongdoing is imposed on, and only on, the wrongdoer(s). A defendant will not be vicariously liable unless the following conditions are met: (a) there is an employer–employee relationship between the defendant and the person for whose actions they are being held liable; (b) the employee committed the tortious act while acting in the course of their employment.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

1. Introduction  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This introductory chapter explains how contract law is structured and how it fits into the overall scheme of the law of obligations and into English law more generally. It explains the boundaries between contract law, torts and unjust enrichment and restitution. It also explains the wider range of situations covered by the law of contract, and puts the law of contract into its social and economic context.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

16. Vicarious liability  

This chapter examines the doctrine of vicarious liability. It explains that vicarious liability is not a tort in its own right, but is a means whereby a party can be held liable for the tortious acts of another. Vicarious liability can arise through a number of relationships, the most common being that of employer and employee. The traditional requirements for vicarious liability are discussed, namely (i) the existence of an employer–employee relationship; (ii) the employee must have committed a tort; and (iii) the tort must have been committed in the course of the employer’s business. Finally, the chapter looks at defences available to an employer who has been held vicariously liable for the acts of an employee.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

1. Introduction  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This introductory chapter explains how contract law is structured and how it fits into the overall scheme of the law of obligations and into English law more generally. It explains the boundaries between contract law, torts and unjust enrichment, and restitution. It also explains the wider range of situations covered by the law of contract, and puts the law of contract into its social and economic context.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

10. Nuisance  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with the tort of nuisance, which is concerned exclusively with land. Nuisance embraces all the multifarious rights and interests appertaining to land — that extremely distinctive form of property whose characteristics include uniqueness, durability, fixity, contiguity, visibility, and short supply. Some such rights are natural, others must be acquired; some are absolute, others qualified; some depend on physical possession, others, such as easements, do not. One of these rights is the right to enjoy one's land. The chapter discusses how the four elements (earth, air, fire, and water) can affect the landowner or occupier; cases where a defendant is held liable for failing to protect his neighbour; the nature of the occupier's duty; disamenity as the characteristic of nuisance law; and whether a landlord is liable for a nuisance committed by a tenant.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

13. Economic Torts  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with economic torts. Economic torts include deceit, malicious falsehood, passing-off, inducing breach of contract, intimidation, and conspiracy. The first three involve deception: deceit is telling lies to the claimant; telling lies to a third party is malicious falsehood; misleading a competitor's customers, even bona fide, is passing-off. The other three torts all involve collaboration, whether reluctant, as a result of threats, complaisant as a result of positive incentives, or spontaneous. The chapter discusses the nature of the harm; the defendant's conduct and purpose, anti-competitive conduct; and the various ‘economic torts’ in terms of their various components: intention, conduct, and wrongfulness.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

9. Trespass  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter discusses the tort of trespass, which protects and vindicates the basic rights of the citizen against deliberate, even well-meaning, invasion, whether or not any damage is caused. Every positive act which directly invades one of those basic rights is trespassory, and leads to liability unless it is justified in law. The chapter distinguishes between the tort of negligence and the tort of trespass. It then describes the rights protected by the tort of trespass: freedom of movement, bodily integrity, and property in one's possession. It also explains the right to trespass and the rights of trespassers.

Book

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

Simon Deakin and Zoe Adams

Markesinis and Deakin’s Tort Law, now in its 8th edition, provides a general overview of the law and discussion of the academic debates on all major topics, highlighting the relationship between the common law, legislation, and judicial policy. In addition, the book provides a variety of comparative and economic perspectives on the law of tort and its likely development, always placing the subject in its socio-economic context, thereby giving students a deep understanding of tort law. The book is composed of eight parts. Part I starts by setting the scene, Part II looks at the tort of negligence. Part III turns to special forms of negligence. This is followed by Part IV which examines interference with the person. Part V turns to intentional interferences with economic interests. The next part looks at stricter forms of liability. Part VII examines the protection of human dignity which includes looking at defamation and injurious falsehood, and human privacy. The last part looks at defences and remedies.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

1. Introduction: The Shape of Tort Law Today  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter introduces the reader to tort law, with emphasis on its principles of liability and the approach taken to the interaction between parties. It first maps the various types of torts, including torts of strict liability and torts requiring intention, and the nature of the ‘wrongs’ with which they are concerned, in terms of protected interests, relevant ‘conduct’, and whether the tort requires ‘actual’ or ‘material’ damage. The chapter concludes by discussing two current challenges to the law of tort: ‘compensation culture’ and the costs of tort, and the influence of the Human Rights Act 1998.