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Chapter

This chapter focuses on the company constitution, essentially the articles of association. The chapter covers the need for articles (including the adoption of the model articles), amending the articles, interpreting the articles, enforcing the articles, and shareholders’ agreements. It particularly considers the extent to which shareholders can alter the articles and the common law limits to the power to do so. Altering the articles to allow for the compulsory transfer of members’ interests is also considered. Interpreting the articles and enforcing the statutory contract created is addressed. Shareholder agreements can provide better protection for shareholders and the chapter considers how they can supplement the company's articles.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter discusses the company’s constitution, which can be a popular area for examination questions. The chapter focuses on the company’s articles of association, considering in particular alteration of the articles and the legal effect of the articles (the ‘statutory contract’). The chapter also considers shareholder agreements, which are often used as a supplement to the company’s constitution.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Exemption clauses provide that one party will not be liable in certain situations; they exclude or limit liability. Exemption clauses have traditionally been frowned upon because they have been misused, often to the detriment of consumers, and the courts have responded by repeatedly looking for ways to cut them down. In recent years the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 has given the courts much stronger powers and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations have strengthened the position of consumers. These statutory controls have recently been radically overhauled in the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and this chapter provides a full explanation of these complex developments.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Exemption clauses provide that one party will not be liable in certain situations; they exclude or limit liability. Exemption clauses have traditionally been frowned upon because they have been misused, often to the detriment of consumers, and the courts have responded by repeatedly looking for ways to cut them down. In recent years the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 has given the courts much stronger powers and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations have strengthened the position of consumers. These statutory controls have recently been radically overhauled in the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and this chapter provides a full explanation of these complex developments.

Chapter

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter refers to informal arrangements relating to land and related transactions that fail to comply with statutory formality requirements. Through a number of equitable mechanisms, these transactions may be rendered effective. It must be noted that trusts of land are only enforceable when they are evidenced by signed writing and meet certain formality requirements relating to the disposition of land. Verbal contracts for the sale of land are, therefore, considered void. Equity may have a role to play in rendering a transaction effective where parties have entered into informal arrangements relating to property, and this has been recognized explicitly by statute. Trusts of land and contracts for the sale of land play a significant role in validating informal arrangements relating to property, as does the doctrine of proprietary estoppel.

Chapter

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. A contract may be deemed illegal or void on grounds of public policy. This chapter examines the illegality of contracts under English law, contracts prohibited by statute (express prohibition), and contracts that are illegal in their performance. It considers contracts that are void on grounds of public policy, focusing on contracts in restraint of trade, covenants between employer and employee, exclusive dealing agreements, exclusive service agreements, and severance of the objectionable parts of covenants. The chapter also discusses the recovery of money or property transferred under an illegal contract, along with the UK Law Commission’s proposed reform of the law governing illegal contracts and the Supreme Court decision of Patel v Mirza over controversy concerning the nature of illegality, the basis for intervention in illegal contracts, and the ability to recover under an illegal contract.

Chapter

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

The Casebook series provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. A contract may be deemed illegal or void on grounds of public policy. This chapter examines the illegality of contracts under English law, contracts prohibited by statute (express prohibition), and contracts that are illegal in their performance. It considers contracts that are void on grounds of public policy, focusing on contracts in restraint of trade, covenants between employer and employee, exclusive dealing agreements, exclusive service agreements, and severance of the objectionable parts of covenants. The chapter also discusses the recovery of money or property transferred under an illegal contract, along with the UK Law Commission’s proposed reform of the law governing illegal contracts and the supreme court decision of Patel v Mirza over controversy concerning the nature of illegality, the basis for intervention in illegal contracts and the ability to recover under an illegal contract.

Chapter

This chapter provides an overview of the characteristics of the contemporary administrative state. It sketches out the essential features of state institutions mainly created under the prerogative power or statute. This includes central government, the National Health Service, local government, the police, and non-departmental public bodies. The chapter is also concerned with explaining the character of the modern administrative state as a ‘contracting state’ which relies increasingly on contractual relationships between government and independent and private service providers. In the light of widespread privatisation, the modern administrative state is discussed finally as a regulatory state.