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Book

Cover Card & James' Business Law
Card & James’ Business Law provides analysis of the English legal system, contract law, the law of torts, company law, and employment law, with online chapters providing further discussion relating to the economic torts, corporate governance, the sale of goods, consumer credit, and the law relating to unfair and illegal commercial practices. All of this is discussed using relevant examples from the business environment, and the key legal cases to help develop a greater understanding of the interconnections between the law and the corporate setting. Part I of the book looks at the English legal system. Part II looks at the law of contract including the formation, terms, exclusion clauses, and remedies. Part III looks at the law of torts in detail. Part IV considers partnership and company law including business structures, the constituents of a company, shares, capital maintenance, shareholders remedies, and corporate rescue. Finally, Part V is about employment law.

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Cover Public Law Concentrate

3. The rule of law  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the meaning of the rule of law; government according to law; the key features of a legal system based on the rule of law; whether the UK legal system complies with Dicey’s conception of the rule of law, whether wide arbitrary and discretionary powers are ever justified, privileges and immunities, and whether the courts ought to be able to extend the criminal law.

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Cover Business Law

3. Creating, Finding, and Applying the Law  

This chapter discusses the administration of the legal system and introduces its essential elements. It begins by identifying the various sources of law in England and Wales and continues with an examination of the roles played by the judiciary in interpreting and applying legislation. It demonstrates the active and important role adopted by judges in giving the full effect of the law. It considers the law-making process, along with the workings of the parliamentary system and the use of delegated legislation. It also considers the sources of the law to identify where laws may derive, and delineates the ‘hierarchy’ of laws in England. The chapter concludes by identifying and critiquing the ability of Parliament to delegate the responsibility of passing legislation.

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Cover International Law

1. Foundations and structure of international law  

This chapter introduces the subject of public international law and provides an overview of its most important elements. It begins with a brief historical overview of international law. It then presents the international legal system consisting of different structures of legal rules and principles; discusses the basis of international legal obligation; offers a brief overview of the relationship between international law and national law; and deals with the issue of enforcement. The chapter concludes with an overview of some of the critiques of the international legal system.

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Cover Card & James' Business Law

13. An introduction to the law of torts  

This chapter provides an introduction to the law of torts. It explains that the objectives of tort law are to compensate those who suffer harm, to deter conduct that causes harm, and to protect legitimate interests. Tort law, along with contract law, forms the backbone of Britain’s civil justice system and is of immense importance to the business community because it represents a significant source of legal exposure for businesses. The chapter provides an introduction to the concept of the duty of care, as well as discussing who can sue and be sued in the event of a breach of duty. Finally, the chapter discusses how the law of torts has been affected by the European Convention on Human Rights.

Book

Cover Borkowski's Textbook on Roman Law
Course-focused and comprehensive, Borkowski’s Textbook on Roman Law provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Borkowski’s Textbook on Roman Law provides an account of Roman private law and civil procedure, with coverage of all key topics, including the Roman legal system, and the law of persons, property, and obligations. The text sets the law in its social and historical context, and demonstrates the impact of Roman law on our modern legal systems. For the sixth edition, the text has been comprehensively reviewed and references to a wide range of scholarly texts have been included, to ground the account of Roman law firmly in contemporary scholarship. Examples from legal practice have been added where these illuminate legal doctrine. The text has been updated to reflect current scholarly opinions. References to the latest legal scholarship on Roman law have been included to reflect the most recent developments in the field.

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Cover Cases & Materials on International Law

2. Sources of International Law  

This chapter begins with a discussion of the importance of the sources of international law. It then discusses the Statute of the International Court of Justice 1945; treaties; customary international law; general principles of law; judicial decisions and the writings of publicists; resolutions of international organisations; soft law.Finally, it looks at whether there exists a hierarchy of international law sources.

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Cover Business Law

2. The English Legal system, Constitution, and Human Rights  

This chapter, in discussing the English legal system and its features, begins by outlining what the law is and some important constitutional principles. The discussion is primarily based on the institutions and personnel involved in the practice and administration of justice. It therefore involves a description and evaluation of the courts, tribunals, and the judiciary, including their powers and the rationale for such authority, as well as the mechanisms of control and accountability. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate how the mechanisms of the justice system work. The English legal system exists to determine the institutions and bodies that create and administer a just system of law. It should be noted here that the UK does, in fact, possess a written constitution, it is merely uncodified.

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Cover Casebook on Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter begins by providing examples of torts. It then discusses the aims of the law of torts, the most significant being compensation and deterrence. Part of the justification for a tort is that it identifies what actions should be avoided and deters people from engaging in them. It is essential to know that action is wrongful, but a tort action may over-deter or under-deter. It may over-deter where the perception of the chance of liability is exaggerated. It may under-deter where either the chances of somebody suing to enforce their rights are small, or where the consequences to the individual tortfeasor may be slight. Originally tort was about ‘shifting’ or ‘transferring’ the loss from the victim to the defendant (corrective justice). The defendant themselves paid compensation to the victim. However, those days are gone and we are now in an era of ‘loss distribution’. In other words, it is not the defendant himself who pays, but it will be their, or their employer’s, insurer. The chapter then considers the study of torts. Tort law is almost wholly a case-driven subject and therefore a good knowledge of the cases and what they stand for is essential. The chapter presents three steps to studying cases.

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Cover Business Law

11. The Tortious Liability of Businesses in Negligence and Nuisance  

This chapter first discusses one of the most important torts—negligence—which may be commonly seen in instances of personal injury. This is followed by a discussion on acts of private and public nuisance. Torts law is particularly relevant to businesses as they need to be aware of the extent of their potential liabilities to workers, visitors to business premises, other businesses, and to the general public. This extends to ensuring that safe systems of work exist and appropriate insurance is maintained. Contrary to civil law, torts law imposes obligations on parties who wish to undertake duties freely and agree to be legally bound via contracts without, necessarily, prior agreement. The duty is to take reasonable care and not intentionally or negligently cause harm or damage.

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Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

29. International Arbitration  

This chapter focuses on international arbitration, which broadly covers any reference to arbitration involving parties in different states. International arbitration is most frequently met in the shipping, construction and engineering, oil and gas industries, and also in disputes involving insurance, banking, and financial services. Different systems of law may govern the substantive contract, the agreement to arbitrate, and the procedural law of an arbitration. Ideally the parties will have reached express agreement on the system(s) of law governing each of these areas. If there is no express agreement on the system of law, it will be determined from all the circumstances. The chapter then considers a range of possible challenges to the jurisdiction of a tribunal, as well as several different ways in which a challenge to the tribunal's jurisdiction can be brought. It also looks at the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) arbitration rules and the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on International Arbitration.

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Cover Cases & Materials on International Law

1. The Nature of the International Legal System  

International law is a description of an entire legal system: the international legal system. It is an international legal system by which legal rules are created in order to structure and organise societies and relationships. It acknowledges the influence of political, economic, social and cultural processes upon the development of legal rules. This chapter discusses the relevance of international law; the international community and international law; theories of international law; and the practice of international law.

Book

Cover International Law

Vaughan Lowe

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. International Law is both an introduction to the subject and a critical consideration of its central themes and debates. The opening chapters of the volume explain how international law underpins the international political and economic system by establishing the basic principle of the independence of States, and their right to choose their own political, economic, and cultural systems. Subsequent chapters then focus on considerations that limit national freedom of choice (e.g. human rights, the interconnected global economy, the environment). Through the organizing concepts of territory, sovereignty, and jurisdiction the text shows how international law seeks to achieve an established set of principles according to which the power to make and enforce policies is distributed among States.

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Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

7. Framework for Enforcement  

This chapter outlines the framework for enforcement of European Union (EU) law, and describes the various actions that may be brought before the Court of Justice (CJ). In interpreting the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the CJ has played a key role in the enforcement of EU law, especially with its insistence on the effective protection of individuals’ Union rights. The chapter also explains the significance of judicial review in the EU legal order by focusing on the jurisdiction of the CJ in the appeal cases originating from the General Court (GC). Finally, the chapter outlines how questions of infringement of EU law can also be raised in the national legal system.

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Cover Steiner & Woods EU Law

7. Framework for enforcement  

This chapter outlines the framework for enforcement of European Union (EU) law, and describes the various actions that may be brought before the Court of Justice (CJ). In interpreting the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the CJ has played a key role in the enforcement of EU law especially with its insistence on the effective protection of individuals’ Union rights. The chapter also explains the significance of judicial review in the EU legal order by focusing on the jurisdiction of the CJ in the appeal cases originating from the General Court (GC). Finally, the chapter outlines how questions of infringement of EU law can also be raised in the national legal system.

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Cover Legal Skills

5. Case law  

Case law can be broken down into common law, equity, and custom. This chapter begins with a discussion of common law and equity, including a brief history on how these sources came into being. It then turns to custom as a further source of law. It also provides an overview of the court system to illustrate how the various courts in the system link together in a hierarchy. It concludes with a discussion of the European Court of Human Rights and the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 on case law.

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Cover Legal Skills

5. Case law  

Case law can be broken down into common law, equity, and custom. This chapter begins with a discussion of common law and equity, including a brief history on how these sources came into being. It then turns to custom as a further source of law. It also provides an overview of the court system to illustrate how the various courts in the system link together in a hierarchy. It concludes with a discussion of the European Court of Human Rights and the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 on case law.

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Cover EU Law Directions

4. Sources and forms of EU law  

This chapter examines the forms and sources of European Union (EU) law. It describes the nature of the EU legal system and discusses the classification of various elements of EU law, which include institutional laws, procedural laws, and substantive laws. It explains that the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) are the principal sources of law for the Union. Other sources include regulations, Directives, procedural requirements, and international agreements and conventions. This chapter also discusses the contribution of the European Court of Justice (CJEU) to the sources of EU law.

Chapter

Cover EU Law Directions

4. Sources and forms of EU law  

This chapter examines the forms and sources of European Union (EU) law. It describes the nature of the EU legal system and discusses the classification of various elements of EU law, which include institutional laws, procedural laws, and substantive laws. It explains that the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) are the principal sources of law for the Union. Other sources include regulations, Directives, procedural requirements, and international agreements and conventions. This chapter also discusses the contribution of the European Court of Justice (CJEU) to the sources of EU law.

Book

Cover The English Legal System

Alisdair Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

The English Legal System presents the main areas of the legal system and encourages a critique of the wider aspects of how law is made and reformed. The book is structured in five parts. Part I looks at the sources of law including domestic and international sources. Part II looks at the courts and the practitioners. It considers the structure of the courts and tribunals, judges and judicial independence, the legal professions, and legal aid. Part III examines the criminal justice system. It describes issues related to lay justice, trials, and criminal appeals. The next part is about the civil justice system. It looks at civil litigation, remedies, appeals and alternative dispute resolution, as well as the funding of civil litigation. The final part looks to the future.