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Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

3. The constitution of the company  

This chapter discusses the company constitution. A company’s constitution consists primarily of the articles of association and agreements and resolutions affecting the company’s constitution. The constitution forms a statutory contract between the company and its members, and between the members themselves, but only those provisions relating to membership rights will constitute terms of the statutory contract. A company can alter its articles by passing a special resolution, although statute and the common law restrict a company’s ability to alter its articles.

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

3. The constitution of the company  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the company constitution. A company’s constitution consists primarily of the articles of association and agreements and resolutions affecting the company’s constitution. The constitution forms a statutory contract between the company and its members, and between the members themselves, but only those provisions relating to membership rights will constitute terms of the statutory contract. A company can alter its articles by passing a special resolution, although statute and the common law restrict a company’s ability to alter its articles.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

8. Implied terms  

This chapter looks at the terms which are implied into contracts of employment. Implied terms are those that are deemed to be present by a court despite never having been explicitly agreed or even discussed by the employer or employee. The chapter begins by setting out the different types of implied term, differentiating these from other types of terms, before going on to explore the major implied terms and their significance. It focuses in particular on the duty to maintain a relationship of mutual trust and confidence as this is the area in which the most significant legal developments have occurred. It then considers situations in which implied terms conflict with express terms, before discussing procedural issues in breach of contract cases.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

4. Corporate personality  

This chapter looks at one of, if not the, defining characteristic of the company, namely its corporate personality. At its most basic level, the doctrine of corporate personality simply provides that the company is a person. As such, it can do many things that humans are able to do, including own property, enter into contracts, and be subject to legal rights, duties, and obligations. However, the artificial nature of corporate personality, and the fact that it can be abused, means that a significant body of law has developed in this area. The law provides for several ways in which a company’s corporate personality can be set aside. These include statutory provisions and the common law. Moreover, individuals may contract away the protection of corporate personality and render themselves personally liable.

Book

Cover Business Law

James Marson and Katy Ferris

Business Law provides an introduction to the subject. Packed with up-to-date and relevant examples, it demonstrates the real applicability of the law to the business world. The book is split into eight parts. After an introduction about studying the law, Part 2 covers the English legal system, the constitution, EU law, and human rights. This comprises important issues including statutory interpretation and the legislative process, and court structures. Part 3 considers contractual obligations. Here terms such as, contractual capacity, mistake, misrepresentation, duress, contractual terms, regulations, and remedies for breach are discussed. Part 4 discusses tortious liability and describes issues of negligence, nuisance, economic loss, psychiatric injury, and statutory duties. Part 5 examines company law, including trading structures, maintenance of finance and capital, and corporate administration and management. Part 6 explores the employment relationship, the nature of which will determine many important factors for both the individual and the employer. It includes discussions on the Contract of Employment, statutory regulation of dismissals, equality in employment relationships, and Statutory and Common Law Regulation of the Conditions of Employment. Part 6 then discusses agency law and the duties and responsibilities that exist for both principal and agent. Finally, intellectual property and data protection issues are considered in Part 8.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

6. Exemption Clauses and Unfair Terms  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This chapter discusses the common law and statutory rules governing exemption clauses, and the control of unfair terms. Written contracts frequently contain clauses excluding or limiting liability. This is particularly so in the case of ‘standard form’ documents drawn up by one of the parties or a trade association to which one of the parties belong. At common law there are special rules on the incorporation of exemption clauses, special rules of construction applicable to them, and a few miscellaneous other common law rules designed to control them. The chapter first considers those common law rules before going on to the legislative control of exemption clauses and unfair terms. The focus of the discussion of statutory control is the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 for non-consumer contracts, and the Consumer Rights Act 2015 for consumer contracts.

Book

Cover Employment Law in Context
Employment Law in Context combines extracts from leading cases, articles, and books with commentary to provide a full critical understanding of employment law. As well as providing a grounding in individual labour law, this title offers detailed analysis of the social, economic, political, and historical context in which employment law operates, drawing attention to key and current areas of debate. An innovative running case study contextualizes employment law and demonstrates its practical applications by following the life-cycle of a company from incorporation, through expansion, to liquidation. Reflection points and further reading suggestions are included. The volume is divided into eight main Parts. The first Part provides an introduction to employment law. The next Part looks at the constitution of employment and personal work contracts. This is followed by Part III, which examines the content of the personal employment contract and the obligations imposed by the common law on employers and employees. The fourth Part is about statutory employment rights. The fifth Part covers equality law. Part VI looks at the common law and statutory regulation of dismissals. The Part that follows considers business reorganizations, consultation, and insolvency. Finally, Part VIII describes collective labour law.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

6. Exemption clauses  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Exemption clauses provide that one party will not be liable in certain situations; they exclude or limit liability. Exemption clauses have traditionally been frowned upon because they have been misused, often to the detriment of consumers, and the courts have responded by repeatedly looking for ways to cut them down. In recent years the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 has given the courts much stronger powers and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations have strengthened the position of consumers. These statutory controls have recently been radically overhauled in the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and this chapter provides a full explanation of these complex developments.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

6. Exemption clauses  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Exemption clauses provide that one party will not be liable in certain situations; they exclude or limit liability. Exemption clauses have traditionally been frowned upon because they have been misused, often to the detriment of consumers, and the courts have responded by repeatedly looking for ways to cut them down. In recent years the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 has given the courts much stronger powers and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations have strengthened the position of consumers. These statutory controls have recently been radically overhauled in the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and this chapter provides a full explanation of these complex developments.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

27. Protection of the Borrower  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter reviews the loan contract and the controls that the law has imposed to protect the borrower. The level of protection differs according to the nature of the borrower and the type of security transaction. Market regulation of the residential mortgage market has increased protection for domestic borrowers. Vitiating factors, particularly undue influence, have impacted upon the creation of collateral mortgages of the family home to secure commercial borrowing. Equitable protection has been provided by controls against penalties and oppressive and unconscionable terms, as well as by protection of the borrower’s equity of redemption. Statutory consumer protection now offers more effective protection to domestic borrowers. The common law, equitable, and statutory control mechanisms are then described and applied to demonstrate the protection they afford against particular mortgage terms, for instance to control rates of interest and other costs associated with borrowing.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

3. The Corporate Constitution  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter discusses the company’s constitution, which can be a popular area for examination questions. The chapter focuses on the company’s articles of association, considering in particular alteration of the articles and the legal effect of the articles (the ‘statutory contract’). The chapter also considers shareholder agreements, which are often used as a supplement to the company’s constitution.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

4. Shares and Shareholders  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. Shareholders in a company own shares, but the nature of a share and the rights of a shareholder are not easily defined. This chapter discusses the definition and characteristics of a share; the differences between different types of share, particularly ordinary and preference shares; allotment of shares and pre-emption rights; return of capital; and variation of class rights.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

23. Statutory and Common Law Regulation of the Conditions of Employment  

This chapter continues from the discussion of the obligations on employers to adhere to the Equality Act (EA) 2010 and protect their workers from discrimination and harassment, to a wider consideration of the regulation of conditions of employment. Legislation places many obligations on employers, and they are increasingly subject to statutory controls that provide for a minimum wage to be paid to workers, for regulation as to the maximum number of hours workers may be required to work, and for the protection of workers’ health and safety. In the event of an employer’s insolvency, the rights of employees are identified, and finally, the mechanisms for employers to protect their business interests in the contract of employment are considered.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

5. The company constitution  

This chapter focuses on the company constitution, essentially the articles of association. The chapter covers the need for articles (including the adoption of the model articles), amending the articles, interpreting the articles, enforcing the articles, and shareholders’ agreements. It particularly considers the extent to which shareholders can alter the articles and the common law limits to the power to do so. Altering the articles to allow for the compulsory transfer of members’ interests is also considered. Interpreting the articles and enforcing the statutory contract created is addressed. Shareholder agreements can provide better protection for shareholders and the chapter considers how they can supplement the company's articles.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

11. Illegality  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines contracts that are tainted by illegality or otherwise contrary to public policy, and how illegality affects the parties’ positions following the hugely influential Supreme Court decision of Patel v Mirza. A contract may be illegal from the beginning or illegality may arise as a result of statute (for example, express statutory prohibitions). Examples of illegal contracts are those intended to commit crimes or contracts prejudicial to sexual morality. As a general principle, illegal contracts cannot be enforced and benefits conferred in the performance of an illegal contract cannot be recovered. There are some exceptions, however, such as where the parties are not in pari delicto (not equally guilty), or where the claimant can establish his right to the money or property transferred without having to rely upon the illegal contract. This chapter also examine the law’s treatment of contracts in restraint of trade, including exclusive dealing and exclusive service agreements.

Chapter

Cover Equity & Trusts

9. Informal Arrangements Relating to Land  

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter refers to informal arrangements relating to land and related transactions that fail to comply with statutory formality requirements. Through a number of equitable mechanisms, these transactions may be rendered effective. It must be noted that trusts of land are only enforceable when they are evidenced by signed writing and meet certain formality requirements relating to the disposition of land. Verbal contracts for the sale of land are, therefore, considered void. Equity may have a role to play in rendering a transaction effective where parties have entered into informal arrangements relating to property, and this has been recognized explicitly by statute. Trusts of land and contracts for the sale of land play a significant role in validating informal arrangements relating to property, as does the doctrine of proprietary estoppel.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

10. Duress, undue influence, and unconscionable bargains  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas of the law curriculum. This chapter examines contracts that are tainted by illegality or otherwise contrary to public policy, and how illegality affects the parties’ positions following the hugely influential Supreme Court decision of Patel v Mirza. A contract may be illegal from the beginning, or illegality may arise as a result of statute (for example, express statutory prohibitions). Examples of illegal contracts are those intended to commit crimes or contracts prejudicial to sexual morality. As a general principle, illegal contracts cannot be enforced, and benefits conferred in the performance of an illegal contract cannot be recovered. There are some exceptions, however, such as where the parties are not in pari delicto (not equally guilty), or where the claimant can establish his right to the money or property transferred without having to rely upon the illegal contract. This chapter also examine the law’s treatment of contracts in restraint of trade, including exclusive dealing and exclusive service agreements.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

11. Illegality  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas of the law curriculum. This chapter examines contracts that are tainted by illegality or otherwise contrary to public policy, and how illegality affects the parties’ positions following the hugely influential Supreme Court decision of Patel v Mirza. A contract may be illegal from the beginning or illegality may arise as a result of statute (for example, express statutory prohibitions). Examples of illegal contracts are those intended to commit crimes or contracts prejudicial to sexual morality. As a general principle, illegal contracts cannot be enforced and benefits conferred in the performance of an illegal contract cannot be recovered. There are some exceptions, however, such as where the parties are not in pari delicto (not equally guilty), or where the claimant can establish his right to the money or property transferred without having to rely upon the illegal contract. This chapter also examine the law’s treatment of contracts in restraint of trade, including exclusive dealing and exclusive service agreements.

Book

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law
The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for law students tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This book offers clear advice on what to expect in typical employment law exams. It addresses a wide range of employment law topics that are most often encountered in employment law courses, including questions on ‘mixed’ topics. The book provides sample essay and problem questions to allow students to practise and refine exam skills. These are supported by suggested answers and diagram plans. Detailed author commentary explains what examiners are looking for, traps to avoid, and how students can best achieve their potential. This book also includes separate chapters on skills and tips for success in both exams and in coursework assessments. It is an ideal tool to help support revision or to use throughout studies to help review learning.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

9. Statutory regulation of contracts  

This chapter studies the features of legally binding contracts by examining the manner in which the terms of a contract are regulated through statutory intervention. Such legislative measures have come about as a response to the unequal bargaining positions of consumers as contracting parties in business contracts, and the idea that laissez-faire can be contrary to public policy and fairness, for example with certain exclusion clauses. Some examples include statutes such as the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and the Sale of Goods Act 1979 that imply terms into contracts, and the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 that regulates the parties’ use of exclusion clauses. This protects the weaker party to a contract from exploitation and provides minimum rights that may not be waived.