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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

20. Witness Statements  

This chapter deals with witness statements. The importance of witness evidence is a historic premise of civil litigation and it remains the case, save only that evidence in chief is now provided through a witness statement unless the court orders otherwise. The fact that the majority of cases settle well before trial provides some complexity as regards how the evidence of a potential witness is handled. The first stage will be to take informal statements. The second stage, where appropriate, is that what a potential witness says may be put into the form of a formal witness statement. The chapter discusses formal requirements for witness statements; drafting a witness statement; drafting an affidavit; exchange of witness statements; and reviewing witness statements.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

5. Witnesses’ previous consistent statements and the remnants of the rule against narrative  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the following: the rule against narrative that excludes evidence of previous consistent statements; the five exceptions to the rule against narrative, comprising victims’ complaints, rebuttal of suggestions of concoction or afterthought, res gestae, statements identifying or describing a person, object, or place, and statements supplementing deficiencies in witnesses’ memory; evidence of distress; the eventual introduction of evidence-in-chief delivered by video recording (Criminal Justice Act 2003, s 137); statements made by the accused when first taxed with incriminating facts; and statements made by the accused when incriminating articles are recovered.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Evidence

9. Examination and cross-examination  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flow charts. This chapter deals with the type of questions that can or cannot be asked in examination-in-chief or cross-examination in criminal trials. This area overlaps considerably with criminal procedure, and Evidence courses vary in the topics they cover. The chapter covers refreshing of memory, rules on previous consistent statements and exceptions, and hostile witnesses in respect of examinations-in-chief. In respect of cross-examination, it covers rules on previous inconsistent statements, finality to answers to collateral questions and exceptions, the special rule for cross-examination of complainants in sexual offence cases and non-defendant’s bad character.

Chapter

Cover Murphy on Evidence

10. The rule against hearsay I  

Scope and working of the rule

This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the rule against hearsay, covering the definition of hearsay; the dangers of hearsay evidence; the development of exceptions and reform of rule. The second part explains how the hearsay rule operates by distinguishing hearsay and non-hearsay statements and, therefore, discusses: a statement having legal effect or significance; a statement admissible to prove that it was made or was made on a particular occasion or in a certain way; a statement as circumstantial evidence of state of mind; a statement as circumstantial evidence of other relevant facts; three classic hearsay problems; and the use of avoidance and evasion.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

11. Untrue statements  

Misrepresentation and unilateral mistake

This chapter examines how English law deals with the problem of untrue statements through the doctrines of misrepresentation and unilateral mistake. It begins with an overview of contractual transactions involving at least some measure of information asymmetry and proceeds by considering the basic principles of the law of misrepresentation. It then considers the three elements of false statements: the absence of general duties to disclose relevant facts, an objective approach to construing ambiguous statements, and a distinction between statements of fact and statements of opinion. It also discusses the remedies available to the representee in the case of misrepresentation, along with two types of unilateral mistakes recognized in law: unilateral mistakes as to identity and unilateral mistakes as to terms. The chapter concludes with an analysis of misleading selling practices and statutory remedies which are available to victims of misleading selling practices under the law of unfair commercial practices.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

14. Hearsay admissible at common law  

This chapter considers the following categories of hearsay: statements in public documents, works of reference, evidence of birth, age, and death, evidence of reputation, statements forming part of the res gestae, and statements which are admissions made by an agent of a defendant. All of these categories were established at common law as exceptions to the rule against hearsay, and all of them have been preserved by statute. The categories relating to age and res gestae have been preserved in criminal but not civil proceedings. All of the other categories have been preserved in both criminal and civil proceedings.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

12. Drafting Statements of Case  

A statement of case is a summary of allegations of fact which sets out all the elements required by law to show a cause of action, and entitlement to all remedies claimed. Clear, concise, and complete statements of case are central to effective litigation. A good statement of case encapsulates what the case is about, demonstrating good factual analysis, based on a proper understanding of the relevant law. This chapter deals with the rules and skill related to statements of case, and how statements of case can be refined. The discussions cover the process for drafting a statement of case; rules for drafting; principles for focusing on issues; headings for statements of case; framework for particulars of a claim; specifying remedies and relief; refining a statement of case; and challenging a statement of case.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

14. Deceit  

This chapter discusses the tort of deceit. The common-law rules concerning liability for dishonesty were synthesised to create the tort of deceit at the end of the eighteenth century in Pasley v. Freeman, and the tort takes its modern form from the decision of the House of Lords in Derry v. Peek in 1889. Most of the cases concern non-physical damage, that is to say, financial or pure economic loss, although the tort can also extend to cover personal injuries and damage to property. The requirements of liability are as follows: the defendant must make a false statement of existing fact with knowledge of its falsity and with the intention that the claimant should act on it, with the result (4) that the claimant acts on it to his detriment.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

18. Requests for Further Information  

A party may sometimes take the view that the statement of case provided by the other side is not as clear as it should be, or fails to set out the other side’s case with the precision that would be expected. In such cases a request may be made for further information about the facts on which the other side’s case is based. This chapter discusses the rules on requests for further information; the response; objecting to requests; orders for responses; requests in freezing injunctions; and collateral use.

Chapter

Cover Murphy on Evidence

13. The rule against hearsay IV  

The accused’s denials and silence

The rules applicable to confessions are not necessarily applicable to all statements made by a suspect when confronted with his suspected involvement in an offence, because not all such statements are even partly inculpatory. Two situations are of particular importance: those in which the accused denies the allegations put to him, and those in which he remains silent in the face of the allegations. This chapter discusses the following: the accused’s denials; the accused’s silence at common law; the accused’s failure to mention facts when questioned or charged; the accused’s failure to account for objects, substances, or marks; and the accused’s failure to account for their presence at the scene of the offence.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

12. Hearsay in criminal cases  

This chapter discusses the meaning of hearsay in criminal proceedings and the categories of hearsay admissible by statute in such proceedings. It considers the relationship between the hearsay provisions of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (the 2003 Act) and Art 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights as it relates to hearsay; the definition of hearsay, and its admissibility under the 2003 Act, including admissibility under an inclusionary discretion (s 114(1)(d)); and safeguards including provisions relating to the capability and credibility of absent witnesses, the power to stop a case and the discretion to exclude. Also considered in this chapter are: expert reports; written statements under s 9 of the Criminal Justice Act 1967; and depositions of children and young persons under s 43 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

7. Examination-in-chief  

The questioning of witnesses, which generally falls into three stages known as examination-in-chief, cross-examination, and re-examination, is central to the English adversary system of justice. This chapter focuses on the first stage, examination-in-chief. In this stage the party calling a witness, or counsel on his behalf, will seek to elicit evidence that supports his version of the facts in issue. The discussions cover young and vulnerable witnesses; the rule against leading questions and the exceptions to the rule; refreshing the memory in court and out of court; the rule against previous consistent or self-serving statements and the common law exceptions to the rule (complaints in sexual cases, statements admissible to rebut allegations of recent fabrication, statements made on accusation, previous identification, statements admissible as part of the res gestae and statements in documents used to refresh the memory and received in evidence); and unfavourable and hostile witnesses.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

8. Cross-examination and re-examination  

This chapter first discusses cross-examination, the questioning of a witness immediately after his examination-in-chief by the legal representative of the opponent of the party calling him, or by the opposing party in person, and by the legal representative of any other party to the proceedings or by any other party in person. The object of cross-examination is to elicit evidence which supports the cross-examining party’s version of the facts in issue and to cast doubt upon the witness’s evidence-in-chief. It then turns to re-examination. A witness who has been cross-examined may be re-examined by the party who called him. The object of re-examination is to repair damage that has been done by cross-examination.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Criminal Law

23. Other offences involving fraud  

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

This chapter focuses on other offences involving fraud, including false accounting, false statements by company directors, suppression of documents and cheating the public revenue—offences that are addressed in s 17 of the Theft Act 1968. Section 17(1)(a) criminalizes falsification of accounts, etc, whereas s 17(1)(b) criminalizes using a falsified account, etc. Section 17(2) provides an extended, albeit non-exhaustive, definition of falsity. The concept of a claim of right includes a claim to the payment of a debt. If a person genuinely believes in the claim of right to the money to which he acts with a view to gain, there is no reason why he should use false means (evidencing his dishonesty) to acquire that money. This chapter also discusses elements of the fraud-related offences including ‘gain’ and ‘loss’ as defined in s 34(2)(a) of the Theft Act 1968.

Chapter

Cover Sentencing and Punishment

7. Impact on victims and offenders  

This chapter reviews the increased policy focus on victims, dealing with remedies for victims of crime and more recent involvement in the sentencing process via victim impact statements as well as discussing the impact of punishment on offenders. Ways of reducing the impact of crime on the victim are considered, including compensation, and confiscation, restitution and forfeiture as well as focusing on the Victims Code and the victim’s surcharge. Conflicting approaches to the impact of punishment on the offender or the offender’s family, including financial penalties, are considered. This discussion covers justifications from penology and evidence—from research and appellate cases—of practice in the courts. Arguments for and against impact mitigation are examined with reference to a range of issues, including social deprivation, illness, disability, and age.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

21. Drafting skills  

This chapter introduces drafting skills. It explains the differences between legal drafting and legal writing. Using a statement of case as an example of a document with a specific legal purpose, the chapter develops the skills of writing in concise, plain, and contemporary language, maintaining formality or legal accuracy and structuring a clear and logical draft which complies with the key parts of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998. It concludes with a worked example of improving the first draft of a set of particulars of claim.

Chapter

Cover Complete Contract Law

6. The Terms of the Contract  

This chapter focuses on the terms of the contract. Such terms can be expressed in writing or in oral statements. In addition, some terms can be implied into a contract by legislation or the courts. As a result, contracts can be in the form of a written document, an oral agreement, or even a combination of written terms and oral statements and all three can contain implied terms. The chapter then looks at how terms can be implied into contracts. It also explores the law on express terms. In the context of what has been agreed, there are two main types of dispute. One type of dispute relates to the existence of a term that a party claims has been breached. The other type of dispute over what has been agreed relates to the meaning of the terms. In such cases, the meaning of the disputed term will determine whether it has been breached. That requires the courts to interpret the term to reflect the parties’ apparent intentions.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

6. Special duty problems: economic loss  

This chapter deals with negligence that causes only economic loss. The basic rule is that a person may sue for economic loss which is consequent on physical loss which that person has suffered, but may not if they have only suffered economic loss by itself. There may be exceptions to this rule where there is sufficient proximity between the parties, and one element in this may be reliance by the one on the other. Though there is a general rule that no liability can arise in respect of ‘pure’ economic losses, there is also a broader exception that can arise when such loss happens as a result of a statement being made (rather than an act done), developed from the famous case of Hedley Byrne v Heller.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

11. Confessions  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the following: what constitutes a ‘confession’ under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), s 82(1); when an accused’s silence may amount to an admission at common law, whether a denial can ever amount to a ‘confession’; the conditions of admissibility of confessions under PACE; confessions made by mentally handicapped persons (PACE, s 77); the admissibility of evidence discovered in consequence of an inadmissible confession; using an inadmissible confession to show that the accused speaks, writes, or expresses himself in a particular way; the status of ‘mixed statements’; whether one accused’s admission can ever provide evidence against a co-accused; an accused’s right to use a co-accused’s confession (PACE, s 76A); the admissibility of confessions by third parties.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

17. The maintenance of capital  

This chapter addresses what is known as the capital maintenance doctrine—a series of rules designed to protect the company’s creditors by ensuring that capital is maintained and not returned to the company’s members. Any limited company can reduce its share capital by passing a special resolution followed by court confirmation. A private company can reduce its share capital by passing a special resolution supported by a solvency statement. On the other hand, public companies are generally prohibited from providing financial assistance to others to acquire their shares. Meanwhile, a company can generally only pay a dividend out of distributable profits. The typical three-stage process for paying dividends is that the directors recommend an amount to be distributed by way of dividend; the company declares the dividend by passing an ordinary resolution; and the dividend is paid out.