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Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Lumley v Wagner (1852) 42 ER 687, Court of Chancery  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Lumley v Wagner (1852) 42 ER 687, Court of Chancery. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Lumley v Wagner (1852) 42 ER 687, Court of Chancery  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Lumley v Wagner (1852) 42 ER 687, Court of Chancery. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Cheshire, Fifoot, and Furmston's Law of Contract

21. Remedies for Breach of Contract  

M P Furmston

This chapter discusses remedies for breach of contract. It covers damages (remoteness of damage and measure of damages; mitigation; contributory negligence; liquidated damages and penalties; and deposits, part payments, and forfeitures), specific performance (specific performance a discretionary remedy; the principle of mutuality; and the remedy of injunction), and extinction of remedies (the statutory time limits; effect of defendant’s fraud; extension of time in case of disability; effect of acknowledgement or part payment; and effect of lapse of time on equitable claims).

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Hyde v Wrench (1840) 49 ER 132  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Hyde v Wrench [1840] EWHC Ch J90; (1840) 49 ER 132; (1840) 3 Beav 334. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Walsh v Lonsdale (1882) 21 Ch D 9, Court of Appeal  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Walsh v Lonsdale (1882) 21 Ch D 9, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Hyde v Wrench (1840) 49 ER 132  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Hyde v Wrench [1840] EWHC Ch J90; (1840) 49 ER 132; (1840) 3 Beav 334. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Walsh v Lonsdale (1882) 21 Ch D 9, Court of Appeal  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Walsh v Lonsdale (1882) 21 Ch D 9, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Equity and Trusts Concentrate

13. Equitable remedies  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. The common law provides the remedy of damages as of right for any breach. However, damages may not always provide a suitable or adequate remedy. One of the key equitable maxims states that ‘equity will not suffer a wrong without a remedy’. Therefore, over the years the courts have developed a number of equitable remedies to address the limitations of the common law response. This chapter considers the range of equitable remedies which have been developed by the courts: specific performance; injunctions; rescission; rectification; and account.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law

12. Additional Remedies  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and other features. The standard common law remedy of damages will not always prove adequate for the victim of a breach of contract. Equity therefore developed a number of additional remedies, discretionary in nature, aimed at ensuring that a claimant was not unreasonably confined to an award of damages; in particular, specific performance and injunctions. The possibility of awarding restitutionary damages, in part to offset any unjust enrichment secured by a contract-breaker, is also considered.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

15. Remedies providing for specific relief and restitutionary remedies  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Equitable remedies that provide for specific relief refer to remedies for breach of contract which compel actual performance rather than simply compensating for loss caused by breach. Compulsion of performance may take the form of claiming an agreed sum, a claim seeking specific performance, or a claim seeking an injunction. The claim or action for an agreed sum gives effect to the claimant’s performance interest by ordering the party in breach to pay the liquidated sum (debt), his agreed performance under the contract. The chapter examines the remedy of specific performance as a court order that compels actual performance of agreed obligations (other than payment of the price). As an equitable remedy it is available at the discretion of the court but only when damages would be an inadequate remedy. This chapter also examines remedies providing for specific relief and restitutionary remedies, the latter of which refer to recovery based on failure of consideration and quantum meruit. Finally, the chapter examines the availability of specific compensatory remedies in instances where there is no financial loss, namely the exceptional remedy of an account of profit or the remedy of ‘negotiating damages’—and their relationship.

Chapter

Cover Equity & Trusts

20. Equitable Orders  

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter focuses on the commercially significant remedies of injunctions, specific performance, rectification, and rescission — paying particular attention to injunctions. Although it is true that damages for the breach of Common Law obligations are available ‘as of right’, and that equitable remedies are inevitably discretionary, it is important to recognize that such discretion is informed by a number of key principles. Importantly, equitable remedies are only available where Common Law remedies are inadequate: Equity can only intervene where the Common Law fails to do justice. However, equitable orders can be made in support of both legal and equitable rights. Failure to comply with an equitable order constitutes the crime of contempt, the punishment for which may be imprisonment, sequestration of the defendant’s assets, a fine, or a combination of these sentences.

Chapter

Cover Pearce & Stevens' Trusts and Equitable Obligations

4. Equitable remedies in modern English law  

This chapter discusses equitable remedies. Equitable remedies apply in all fields of law, from disputes over property or entitlement in contract and intellectual property, to preventing harm, or to the proceeds of wrongdoing being dissipated before a claim can be made against them. Equity evolved these remedies in the Court of Chancery to ameliorate the common law. Sometimes the remedies (like rescission) modified the harshness of the common law rules. Sometimes the remedies (like specific performance and injunction) provide alternative relief to the common law remedy of damages. Key elements of all three actions of recission, specific performance, and injunctions are covered.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

21. Specific enforcement  

This chapter looks at specific performance and injunctions. Specific enforcement is only available in limited circumstances. The adequacy of damages as a remedy must be addressed. Its availability is limited by issues of supervision and its general undesirability in relation to contracts for personal services. Its nature as an equitable remedy means that the courts have discretion and consideration is given to such matters as hardship, behaviour of the claimant, adequacy of consideration, and mutuality. An injunction may, in effect, enforce the performance of the contract. It may be used to prevent a breach of a negative undertaking or to order the undoing of a breach which has already occurred. An injunction may provide the means of securing relief until the trial of the main action.

Chapter

Cover Complete Equity and Trusts

18. Equitable remedies  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter on equitable remedies discusses that the courts’ powers to grant equitable remedies are discretionary and that equitable remedies vary from case to case. It also looks at the difference between the principles governing the grant of general and specific injunctions and the principles governing the grant and refusal of specific performance. It also mentions that all equitable remedies are in personam and can be granted in respect of property outside the jurisdiction of the court.

Chapter

Cover Trusts & Equity

16. Equitable maxims, doctrines, and remedies  

In general, the leading court cases on equitable doctrines and remedies are very old. The fact that they still have the power to determine modern cases proves that equity is inherently adaptable. Originally developed by the old Court of Chancery in constructive competition with the common law courts, equity is now applied (since the Judicature Acts 1873–1875) by the unified Supreme Court of England and Wales. In addition, equity, as a dimension of law, has retained its special function of restraining or restricting the exercise of legal rights and powers in certain cases. This chapter considers principles (including maxims), doctrines (including conversion, satisfaction, performance, and election), and remedies that have been developed over time to help predict the way in which equity will operate in various types of cases.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

14. Specific and agreed remedies  

Courts are very willing to award orders compelling the defendant to pay the agreed price, but much less willing to compel non-monetary performance (specific performance or injunctions). Contract law also controls the remedies agreed by the parties. This chapter discusses: (1) the extent to which contract law grants specific enforcement of different types of contracts; (2) the reasons for denying a claim for specific enforcement; (3) when contract law will refuse to enforce the remedy agreed by the parties, especially agreed payments; and (4) the normative considerations in answering points (1) to (3).

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

8. Discharge of Contract and Contractual Remedies  

The discharge of a contract means that the obligations of the contract come to an end. When discharge occurs, all duties which arose under the contract are terminated. This chapter discusses the various methods of discharging a contract and the consequences of each. It considers how a contract can be discharged through agreement between the parties; the elements necessary for a contract to be discharged by performance, including the rules relating to partial performance of a contract; and the meaning and effect of the frustration of a contract. The chapter discusses the meaning of breach of contract, both actual breach and anticipatory breach, and its consequences. The remedies for a breach of contract are explored, including the rules relating to remoteness and measure of damages and the difference between liquidated damages and penalties. Equitable remedies of specific performance and injunctions are explained.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Lysaght v Edwards (1876) 2 Ch D 499, Chancery Division  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Lysaght v Edwards (1876) 2 Ch D 499, Chancery Division. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.