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Cover Card & James' Business Law

18. Unincorporated business structures  

This chapter examines the law governing unincorporated business structures (that is, those that do not have corporate personality), namely the sole proprietorship, and the partnership. It explains the concept of the two forms of sole proprietorship, namely the sole practitioner and the sole trader, and the processes by which a sole proprietorship is established, operated, and terminated. The chapter then discusses the three different forms of parternship, namely the ordinary partnership, the limited partnership, and the limited liability partnership (although the LLP is discussed in more detail in Chapter 19). The chapter discusses how to create a partnership, and looks at how the partnership is run, including a discussion of the partnership agreement. Finally, the chapter discusses the rules relating to the dissolution of the partnership.


Cover Business Law Concentrate

9. Company law I: trading structures and forming the business  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the law on business organization and business formation. The five main types of business organization (trading structure) applicable in England and Wales are: sole trader; simple partnership; limited liability partnership; private limited company; and public limited company. Sole trader organizations are very flexible but expose the owner to unlimited liability for losses, whilst operating a limited company limits potential losses of the shareholders but is subject to external regulation. A partnership can be ‘simple’, ‘limited’, or a ‘limited liability partnership’. Private limited companies are not required to have a minimum share capital but public limited companies require a minimum of £50,000 allotted share capital on registration.


Cover Company Law

1. Introduction to company law  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter presents an overview of company law, first by considering the company’s place within the various forms of business organisation. To get some comparative perspective on the relative merits of each type of organisation, three criteria for judging them are discussed: whether the form of business organisation facilitates investment in the business, mitigates or minimises the risk involved in the business venture, and whether it provides a clear organisational structure. Using these criteria, three forms of business organisation are analysed: the sole trader, a partnership, or a registered company. The chapter also explains the importance of the memorandum as part of the company’s constitution, as well as the distinction between private companies and public companies. Finally, it outlines the benefits of forming a company as opposed to the sole trader or a partnership.


Cover Legal Systems & Skills

18. Businesses and the business environment  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter discusses the following: the importance of commercial awareness; the main types of business structure, their organisation, and management; the different markets, sectors, and industries in which businesses operate, and the role of consumers within these markets; supply chains from business to consumer; and the impact of competition within different markets.


Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

2. Companies and Corporate Personality  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter considers the main legal forms used for businesses in the UK—particularly sole traders, general partnerships, limited liability partnerships (LLPs), and companies (public and private). It then examines how registered companies limited by shares come into existence. On registration a company becomes a legal person, separate from its shareholders and directors. This chapter explores this ‘corporate personality’ and the popular topic of when the ‘veil of incorporation’ can be lifted or pierced by statute or the courts.