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This chapter examines left and right realism, which address real problems faced by society and suggest solutions. It first considers the political context surrounding the emergence of realist criminologies before discussing three common themes which unite right realism: a focus on ‘street crime’; anti-intellectualism; and a focus on punishing criminals. It then outlines the policy implications of right realist theorising, paying attention to the work of James Q. Wilson and Charles Murray's arguments about criminality. It also explores the ideas of individualism, consumerism and relative deprivation as they relate to criminal behaviour and concludes with an assessment of the key ideas of left realism, including social inclusion and exclusion, as well as its policy implications.

Chapter

Benjamin Bowling, Robert Reiner, and James Sheptycki

The concluding chapter pulls together the implications of the earlier chapters of this book for an assessment of where policing is heading, and what is to be done to achieve greater effectiveness, fairness, and justice. It seeks to answer eight specific questions: What is policing? Who does it? What do police do? What are police powers? What social functions do they achieve? How does policing impact on different groups? By whom are the police themselves policed? How can policing practices be understood? It considers technological, cultural, social, political, economic changes and their implications for crime, order, and policing. It also examines the multifaceted reorientation of police thinking, especially shifts in the theory and practice of policing in the 1990s that included the rhetoric of consumerism. The chapter considers the limits of police reform and the implications of neo-liberalism for the police before concluding with a call for policing based on the principles of social democracy.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines juvenile criminality and peer groups. The discussions cover the concept of anomie and criminality; relative deprivation, strain, and social exclusion; subcultural theories of juvenile deviance; and David Matza and Gresham Sykes' theory of delinquency.