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Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to “modern slavery” is discussed.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights. ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to ‘modern slavery’ is discussed.

Chapter

Legal status lay at the heart of the law of persons. Rome developed into a highly stratified society in which the different gradations of status were reflected in a myriad of detailed rules. So, the law of persons describes the various categories and degrees of status in Roman law, and how status could be acquired or lost. Issues such as slavery and citizenship are fundamental, but the bulk of the law is concerned with the family. This chapter first considers the question of legal personality. It then discusses the rules on status; freedom and the law of slavery; and the legal position of free persons: citizens and non-citizens.

Chapter

This chapter examines the work of the United Nations (UN) in the area of human rights. It discusses the evolution of human rights under the auspices of the UN as well as some of the early influences on human rights. The influence of the Nuremberg trials, the abolition of slavery, and the protection of vulnerable groups on the development of human rights protection law is discussed. Relevant institutions and bodies working under the auspices of the United Nations are discussed. The chapter also explains the functions and responsibilities of these bodies, and highlights the financial and personnel constraints that negatively affect the performance of their duties.

Chapter

Bernadette Rainey, Elizabeth Wicks, and Andclare Ovey

This chapter, which examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights against slavery and forced labour, discusses the provisions of Article 4 and the judgments made by the Strasbourg Court in cases such as human trafficking. It considers the developments concerning human trafficking in cases such as Rantsev, which expanded on the positive obligations placed on the State.

Chapter

This chapter, which examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights against slavery and forced labour, discusses the provisions of Article 4 and the judgments made by the Strasbourg Court in cases such as human trafficking. It considers the developments concerning human trafficking in cases such as Rantsev, which expanded on the positive obligations placed on the State. The chapter examines how the Court has developed the interpretation of slavery in light of international Conventions on human trafficking and the relationship between human trafficking and forced labour. The chapter also examines the interpretation of forced labour, including in relation to employment, prisoners, and military service.

Chapter

This chapter examines the work of the United Nations (UN) in the area of human rights. It discusses the evolution of human rights under the auspices of the UN as well as some of the early influences on human rights. The influence of the Nuremberg trials, the abolition of slavery, and the protection of vulnerable groups on the development of human rights protection law are discussed. Relevant institutions and bodies working under the auspices of the United Nations are also discussed. The chapter explains the functions and responsibilities of these bodies and highlights the financial and personnel constraints that negatively affect the performance of their duties.

Chapter

This chapter look towards the future agenda for international human rights and provides an overview of issues that are likely to characterize the evolution of international human rights. Whilst States remain the primary obligees, required to take all necessary measures to respect, promote, and protect human rights in fulfilment of their treaty obligations, a number of other entities are increasingly powerful and influential. Securing their support for advancing human rights is important, as is ensuring that such entities act in accordance with human rights and can be held to account for violating actions. This chapter considers non-State actors, including non-State armed groups and businesses. The roles of international organizations when engaged in activities in other States and non-governmental organizations are considered briefly.

Chapter

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 4 prohibits slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour. The Court has extended the scope of Article 4 to cover ‘domestic slavery’ and human trafficking. In particular, states have positive obligations to act against conduct by private employers or persons involved in trafficking. Whereas the prohibitions of slavery and servitude are absolute, certain forms of forced or compulsory labour are permitted, for example in fulfilment of a civic duty and work by a convicted prisoner.

Chapter

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

This chapter focuses on non-fatal offences against the person, including assault and battery, wounding and inflicting grievous bodily harm, poisoning offences, kidnapping, harassment and possession and use of offensive weapons. The chapter also discusses defences to assault and battery including consent and lawful chastisement, in addition to the Law Commission’s Report on reforming offences against the person. The discussion includes a detailed analysis of the relevant statutory offences including the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 and the Protection from Harassment Act 1997. It also considers coercive control as well as racially or religiously aggravated versions of the relevant offences.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on non-fatal offences against the person, including assault and battery, wounding and inflicting grievous bodily harm, poisoning offences, kidnapping, harassment, possession and use of offensive weapons. The chapter also discusses defences to assault and battery including consent, and lawful chastisement, in addition to the Law Commission’s Report on reforming offences against the person. The discussion includes a detailed analysis of the relevant statutory offences including the Offences Against the Person Act 1861, the Protection from Harassment Act 1997, and the Prevention of Crime Act 1953. It also considers racially or religiously aggravated versions of the relevant offences.

Chapter

This chapter provides an historical sketch of international human rights. It considers the divergent views as to the origins of human rights. The chapter traces developments including the law of aliens; diplomatic laws; the laws of war; slavery; minority rights; the establishment of the International Labour Organization; and human rights protection after the Second World War.

Chapter

This chapter examines international human rights laws on the right to liberty. It first considers slavery, the most serious threat to an individual’s right to liberty, and then discusses the application of the general rights of liberty and security of person, and the detention of individuals.

Chapter

Ed Bates

This chapter traces the historical development of the concept of human rights and their status in international law. It first discusses human rights on the domestic plane, focusing on the key developments since the late eighteenth century, and then examines international law from the perspective of human rights over the period up to the Second World War. Finally, the chapter considers the efforts to create a universal system of human rights protection in the 1940s, culminating with the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.

Chapter

This chapter provides an historical sketch of international human rights. It considers some of the divergent views as to the origins of human rights. The chapter traces relevant developments including the emergence of the law of aliens; diplomatic laws; the laws of war; the prohibition on slavery; recognition of minority rights; the establishment of the International Labour Organization; and human rights protection after the Second World War. Such incidences of international cooperation and agreements predate, but have influenced, elements of modern international human rights laws. Indeed, some of these historical agreements, such as the prohibition on slavery and minority rights, form part of contemporary human rights.

Chapter

This chapter examines international human rights laws on the right to liberty. It first considers slavery, the most serious threat to an individual’s right to liberty, and then discusses the application of the general rights of liberty and security of person, including the detention of individuals. For many people, liberty is regarded as one of the central tenets of personal freedom; hence slavery and practices analogous to slavery are viewed as morally repugnant and usually legally indefensible. Nevertheless, there are circumstances in which States can restrict liberty, for legitimate purposes, without infringing human rights. This has been demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Chapter

Ed Bates

This chapter traces the historical development of the concept of human rights and their status in international law. It first discusses human rights on the domestic plane, focusing on the key developments since the late eighteenth century, and then examines international law from the perspective of human rights over the period up to the Second World War. Finally, the chapter considers the efforts to create a universal system of human rights protection in the 1940s, culminating with the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.

Book

Janet Loveless, Mischa Allen, and Caroline Derry

Complete Criminal Law offers a student-centred approach to the criminal law syllabus. Clear explanations of general legal principles are combined with fully integrated extracts from leading cases and a wide range of academic materials. This text aims to engage the reader in an active approach to learning and to stimulate reflection about the role of criminal law, offering a complete guide to the LLB/GDL criminal law syllabus with extracts from key cases, academic materials, and explanatory text integrated into a clear narrative. It provides a range of pedagogical features, including concise summaries, diagrams, and examples. Thinking points are included to facilitate and reinforce understanding. Students are referred to the social and moral context of the law, wherever relevant, to encourage them to engage fully with the topical subject matter. This new edition includes coverage of several recent cases of importance including: R v Aidid [2021] (voluntary intoxication), Barton and Booth [2020] (dishonesty), Broughton [2020] and Long, Bowers and Cole [2020] (involuntary manslaughter), Damji [2020] (strict liability: reasonable excuse), Dawson [2021] and Singh [2020] (loss of control), DPP v M [2020] (defence of compulsion), Ivor and Others v R [2021], Lawrance [2020], and Attorney-General’s Reference (Section 36 of the CJA 1972) (No 1 of 2020) [2020] (sexual offences), Lanning and Camille [2021] (joint venture: overwhelming supervening act), Martins [2021] (appropriation in robbery), MS [2021] (proximity in attempt), Pwr v DPP [2022] (strict liability), Thacker and others [2021] (necessity: political protest), Williams (Demario) [2020] (self-defence: defence of property) and the Domestic Abuse Act 2021 (coercive control, strangulation, consent).

Book

Bernadette Rainey, Elizabeth Wicks, and Clare Ovey

Nearly seventy years after the founding of the European Court of Human Rights it has dispensed more than 20,000 judgments and affects the lives of over 800 million people. The seventh edition of Jacobs, White & Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights provides an analysis of this area of the law. Examining each of the Convention rights in turn, this book lays out the key principles. Updated with all the significant developments of the previous three years, it offers a synthesis of commentary and carefully selected case-law, focusing on the European Convention itself rather than its implementation in any one Member State. Part 1 of the book looks at institutions and procedures, including the context, enforcement, and scope of the Convention. Part 2 examines Convention rights in terms of many aspects, including rights to remedy, rights to life, prohibition of torture, protection from slavery and forced labour, and family and private life. Part 2 also examines the freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; the freedom of expression; and the freedom of assembly and association. The rights to education and elections are considered towards the end of Part 2, as are the freedoms of movement and from discrimination. Part 3 reflects on the achievements and criticisms of the Court and examines the prospects and challenges facing the Court in the present political climate and in the future.

Book

Bernadette Rainey, Pamela McCormick, and Clare Ovey

Seventy years after the founding of the European Court of Human Rights it has dispensed more than 22,000 judgments and affects the lives of over 800 million people. The eighth edition of Jacobs, White & Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights provides an analysis of this area of the law. Examining each of the Convention rights in turn, this book lays out the key principles. Updated with all the significant developments of the previous three years, it offers a synthesis of commentary and carefully selected case-law, focusing on the European Convention itself rather than its implementation in any one Member State. Part 1 of the book looks at institutions and procedures, including the context, enforcement, and scope of the Convention. Part 2 examines each of the Convention rights including the right to a remedy, right to life, prohibition of torture, protection from slavery and forced labour, and respect for family and private life. Part 2 also examines the freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; the freedom of expression; and the freedom of assembly and association. The rights to education and elections are considered towards the end of Part 2, as are the freedoms of movement and from discrimination. Part 3 reflects on the achievements and criticisms of the Court and examines the prospects and challenges facing the Court in the present political climate and in the future.