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Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

4. Article 101 TFEU: The Elements  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter discusses the text and scheme of Article 101 which prohibits agreements, decisions, and concerted practices which restrict competition and affect trade between Member States. It explains the terms employed in Article 101(1) and how they are interpreted and applied. In particular, it discusses: the meaning of ‘undertaking’ and ‘association of undertakings’, including the concepts of ‘economic activities’ and of a ‘single economic entity’; the meaning of ‘agreement’ including the coverage of both horizontal and vertical agreements; the meaning of ‘concerted practice’; the meaning of ‘decisions by associations of undertakings’; the application of Article 101(1) to complex arrangements and single continuous infringements; and the meaning of an appreciable effect on trade between Member States.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

4. Article 101 TFEU: The Elements  

This chapter discusses the text and scheme of Article 101 which prohibits agreements, decisions and concerted practices which restrict competition and may affect trade between Member States. It explains the terms employed in Article 101(1) and how they are interpreted and applied. This entails a discussion of the meaning of ‘undertaking’ and ‘association of undertakings’, including the concepts of ‘economic activities’ and of a ‘single economic entity’; the meaning of ‘agreement’ including the coverage of both horizontal and vertical agreements; the meaning of ‘concerted practice’; the meaning of ‘decisions by associations of undertakings’; the application of Article 101(1) to complex arrangements and single continuous infringements; and the meaning of an appreciable effect on trade between Member States.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

3. Article 101(1)  

This chapter discusses Article 101(1) of the Treaty of Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), which prohibits agreements, decisions by associations of undertakings, and concerted practices that restrict competition. It begins by explaining the meaning of ‘undertakings’ and ‘associations of undertakings’. It then considers what is meant by the terms ‘agreements’, ‘decisions’, and ‘concerted practices’, as well as what is meant by the phrase ‘have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction, and distortion of competition’. The chapter then deals with the de minimis doctrine, before explaining the requirement of an effect on trade between Member States. The chapter concludes with a checklist of agreements that, for a variety of reasons, normally fall outside Article 101(1).

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

13. Horizontal agreements (1): cartels  

This chapter is concerned with the prohibition of cartels. It begins with a discussion of the widespread consensus among competition authorities worldwide that cartels should be condemned, and gives examples of recent enforcement that led to the imposition of significant fines and sentences of imprisonment. It also looks at anti-cartel enforcement in the EU. The chapter then considers the application of Article 101 to particular types of cartels: price fixing, market sharing, production quotas and other ‘hard-core’ cartel practices. The final section of this chapter looks at anti-cartel enforcement in the UK.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

9. Competition Act 1998: substantive provisions  

This chapter describes the substantive provisions of the Competition Act 1998 in the UK. The focus of attention in this chapter is the ‘Chapter I prohibition’, which prohibits anti-competitive agreements, and the ‘Chapter II prohibition’, which prohibits the abuse of a dominant position. The Chapter I and II prohibitions are closely modelled upon Articles 101 and 102 TFEU, although they are by no means identical in every respect. Following an overview of the Competition Act, and the changes introduced as a result of Brexit, it considers in turn the decisional practice and case-law under the Chapter I and Chapter II prohibitions. It then discusses the duty in section 60A of the Competition Act that sets out the principles to be applied in determining questions that arise in relation to competition within the UK with effect from 1 January 2021. The chapter also contains a table of all the decisions under the Competition Act to have been published on the website of the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) since the ninth edition of the book in December 2017.