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Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v McNally [2013] EWCA Crim 1051, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Attorney-General’s Reference (No. 1 of 2022) [2020] EWCA Crim 1665, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v SD [2008] EWCA Crim 527, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Bree [2007] EWCA Crim 804, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v SD [2008] EWCA Crim 527, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Lawrance [2020] EWCA Crim 971, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v Bree [2007] EWCA Crim 804, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter reveals that Parliament has ordained various presumptions in relation to consent in sexual offences. Rape, offences linked to prostitution, indecent photographs of children, bigamy, sexual intercourse with a girl under 16, sexual activity with a child, and exposure are widely regarded as the offences that can be clarified as sexual. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 introduced a number of new offences, particularly in relation to the abuse of children through prostitution and to human trafficking for sexual exploitation.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v B (MA) [2008] EWCA Crim 3, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Criminal Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R v B (MA) [2008] EWCA Crim 3, Court of Appeal. The document also included supporting commentary from author Jonathan Herring.

Book

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This includes pitfalls to avoid in the caution sections; and tips for gaining extra marks in questions. Further reading is provided at the end of chapters. Concentrate Questions & Answers Criminal Law offers advice on what to expect in exams and how best to prepare. The book begins by looking at exam and study techniques and then moves on to consider the elements of a crime (including actus reus and mens rea), murder and manslaughter, non-fatal offences, and sexual offences. It then looks at a range of property offences, before exploring the defences in depth. The book concludes with a consideration of secondary participation and inchoate offences, a chapter on mixed questions, and a chapter on how to tackle coursework assessments.

Chapter

This chapter shows that, although psychological explanations have been used to explain various types of criminal or deviant behaviour, it is violent and sexual offences that are most frequently subjected to analysis. Many crimes involve behaviour that was formerly considered perfectly acceptable, but which society has subsequently decided to criminalise. However, psychological theories are particularly suitable for explaining unusual behaviour that often appears aggressive and is likely to be deprecated in most countries. Some may indulge in a range of criminal offences that many people find easy to understand, if not condone: crimes against property-which make up the bulk of recorded criminal offences-being perhaps the best example of this. Despite the fact that violence was far more common in earlier centuries, many people nowadays find excessively violent and sexual crimes far more difficult to comprehend.

Chapter

This chapter shows that, although psychological explanations have been used to explain various types of criminal or deviant behaviour, it is violent and sexual offences that are most frequently subjected to analysis. Many crimes involve behaviour that was formerly considered perfectly acceptable, but which society has subsequently decided to criminalise. However, psychological theories are particularly suitable for explaining unusual behaviour that often appears aggressive and is likely to be deprecated in most countries. Some may indulge in a range of criminal offences that many people find easy to understand, if not condone: crimes against property—which make up the bulk of recorded criminal offences—being perhaps the best example of this. Despite the fact that violence was far more common in earlier centuries, many people nowadays find excessively violent and sexual crimes far more difficult to comprehend.

Chapter

This chapter discusses two main forms of physical violation: the use of physical force, and sexual interference. The first part covers non-fatal physical offences (offences against the person), including the contested question of the limits of consent, and possible reforms of the law. There have been numerous recommendations for reform of this area of the law, including Law Commission proposals in the recent past. The second part is devoted to the law of sexual offences under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, focusing on the main offences and the definition of consent. It concludes with a review of the law’s successes and failures. Arguably, whilst the law’s basic definition of rape is much improved, the 2003 Act falls down in relation to many other problems that it was meant to solve.

Chapter

The Sexual Offences Act 2003 (SOA 2003), which governs almost every offence relating to sexual behaviour, thoroughly overhauled and modernised the law of sexual offences. Prior to the introduction of SOA 2003, the law relating to sexual offences lacked coherence or structure; it offered inadequate protection for the vulnerable and meted many maximum penalties that were deemed too light. This chapter focuses on most of the sexual offences contained in SOA 2003, namely, rape, sexual assault, and other non-consensual sexual offences. It discusses the age of consent, sexual offences involving children younger than sixteen, abuse of a position of trust where a child is below eighteen, familial sex offences, sex with an adult relative, sexual offences against people with a mental disorder, and preparatory offences.

Chapter

John Child and David Ormerod

This chapter deals with sexual offences which criminalise the accused’s invasion of the victim’s sexual—as opposed to simply physical—autonomy. Sexual offences are almost entirely codified within a single statute, the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (SOA 2003). The chapter first considers the relevant provisions of the SOA 2003 with respect to rape, assault by penetration, sexual assault, and causing a person to engage in sexual activity without consent. It then turns to sexual offences against children under 13 and children under 16, as well as status-based and relationship-based sexual offences. The final sections of the chapter outline potential options for legal reform and the application of the offences within the SOA 2003 to problem facts. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

The Sexual Offences Act 2003 (SOA 2003) represents the most comprehensive and radical overhaul of the law relating to sexual offences ever undertaken in England and Wales. This chapter deals with non-consensual sexual offences; namely, rape, assault by penetration, sexual assault, and intentionally causing someone to engage in sexual activity. It also examines sexual offences against children below thirteen years of age, sexual offences against children aged thirteen to sixteen, causing a child to watch a sexual act, arranging or facilitating commission of a child sex offence, and meeting a child following sexual grooming, etc. Finally, the chapter explores offences of abuse of trust, family offences, offences involving mental disorder and other sexual offences such as those surrounding prostitution, pornography, and taking indecent photographs of children.

Chapter

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

The Sexual Offences Act 2003 (SOA 2003) represents the most comprehensive and radical overhaul of the law relating to sexual offences ever undertaken in England and Wales. This chapter deals with non-consensual sexual offences; namely, rape, assault by penetration, sexual assault and intentionally causing someone to engage in sexual activity. It also examines sexual offences against children below 13 years of age, sexual offences against children aged 13 to 16, causing a child to watch a sexual act, arranging or facilitating the commission of a child sex offence, meeting a child following sexual grooming, etc. Finally, the chapter explores offences of abuse of trust, family offences, offences involving mental disorder and other sexual offences such as those surrounding prostitution, pornography and taking indecent photographs of children.

Chapter

This chapter deals with sexual offences which criminalise the accused’s invasion of the victim’s sexual—as opposed to simply physical—autonomy. Sexual offences are almost entirely codified within a single statute, the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (SOA 2003). The chapter first considers the relevant provisions of the SOA 2003 with respect to rape, assault by penetration, sexual assault, and causing a person to engage in sexual activity without consent. It then turns to sexual offences against children under 13 and children under 16, as well as status-based and relationship-based sexual offences. The final sections of the chapter outline potential options for legal reform and the application of the offences within the SOA 2003 to problem facts. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses sexual offences, including rape, assault by penetration, sexual assault, and causing sexual activity. Sexual offences are all governed by the Sexual Offences Act 2003. The meaning of consent is key because lack of consent is an element of the actus reus, and the belief about consent is an element of the mens rea. Where the victim is aged 13 or younger, consent is irrelevant and liability as to age is strict.