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Chapter

This chapter deals primarily with the various interests that could be acquired in property, particularly ownership, rights to servitudes, and possession. The Roman law of property is one of the lasting and important legacies of their legal order and has had a profound impact upon modern legal systems across the world. This chapter begins by considering the Roman classification of property. This was the intellectual starting point in the teaching manuals preserved from the classical period of Roman law. The purpose of this exercise in classification was to demonstrate that certain objects fell outside the sphere of private ownership. Apart from issues of classification, this chapter deals primarily with the various interests that could be acquired in property, particularly ownership, limited real rights over the property of others, such as rights to servitudes, and possession. It deals with the legal rules governing these institutions and their interrelationships. In theory, the interests in property may be divided into two broad categories, namely legal interests (ownership and limited real rights) and factual interests (possession). While such a division is useful, it should not be seen as absolute, since possession, though largely a question of fact, could also have certain legal consequences. But first the Roman classification of property must be considered.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to “modern slavery” is discussed.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights. ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to ‘modern slavery’ is discussed.

Chapter

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 4 prohibits slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour. The Court has extended the scope of Article 4 to cover ‘domestic slavery’ and human trafficking. In particular, states have positive obligations to act against conduct by private employers or persons involved in trafficking. Whereas the prohibitions of slavery and servitude are absolute, certain forms of forced or compulsory labour are permitted, for example in fulfilment of a civic duty and work by a convicted prisoner.

Chapter

This chapter examines international human rights laws on the right to liberty. It first considers slavery, the most serious threat to an individual’s right to liberty, and then discusses the application of the general rights of liberty and security of person, and the detention of individuals.

Chapter

This chapter examines international human rights laws on the right to liberty. It first considers slavery, the most serious threat to an individual’s right to liberty, and then discusses the application of the general rights of liberty and security of person, including the detention of individuals. For many people, liberty is regarded as one of the central tenets of personal freedom; hence slavery and practices analogous to slavery are viewed as morally repugnant and usually legally indefensible. Nevertheless, there are circumstances in which States can restrict liberty, for legitimate purposes, without infringing human rights. This has been demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic.