1-20 of 408 Results

  • Keyword: rule x
Clear all

Chapter

This chapter takes a look at the hearsay rule. Though it is one of the most complex and confusing of the exclusionary rules of evidence, the hearsay rule can be used as the background and foundation to understand the new statutory provisions for civil and criminal proceedings. The chapter first discusses the hearsay rule at the common law level, explaining why such an exclusionary rule was thought necessary. It also indicates the tenor of this rule's development and reform. Next, the chapter more closely examines the scope of the rule, implied assertions, res gestae, the rule against narrative, and the extent to which admissions constitute an exception to the rule.

Chapter

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter first explains the open texture of law, which shows that there are, indeed, areas of conduct where much must be left to be developed by courts or officials, striking a balance between competing interests that vary in weight from case to case. It then discusses the varieties of rule-scepticism, finality and infallibility in judicial decision, and uncertainty in the rule of recognition.

Chapter

This chapter considers the definition of ‘disclosure’, its purpose, its extent, and the process whereby it is implemented. It also looks at other types of disclosure and the times at which such disclosure may take place—some of which may be before litigation has been commenced. The formal provisions for disclosure are contained in the Civil Procedure Rules 31 and the accompanying Practice Direction. The formal disclosure rules apply to cases in the fast track and the multi-track. They do not automatically apply to the small claims track. Disclosure has been much in the legal press recently, and the new draft disclosure rules are discussed.

Chapter

This chapter considers the definition of ‘disclosure’, its purpose, its extent, and the process whereby it is implemented. It also looks at other types of disclosure and the times at which such disclosure may take place—some of which may be before litigation has been commenced. The formal provisions for disclosure are contained in the Civil Procedure Rules 31 and the accompanying Practice Direction. The formal disclosure rules apply to cases in the fast track and the multi-track. They do not automatically apply to the small claims track. Disclosure has been much in the legal press recently, and the new draft disclosure rules are discussed.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the nature and scope of fiduciary duties. It begins by considering the ‘no conflict’ rule, the basic rule governing fiduciaries. Under the rule, a fiduciary is liable to account for any profit he obtains in circumstances where his interests may conflict with his duty to his principal. It then turns to rules governing authorised profits; unauthorised profits and the liability to account for them; self-dealing and fair dealing rules; the proprietary and personal nature of the liability to account; equitable compensation for breach of fiduciary obligation; and secondary liability for breach of fiduciary obligation.

Chapter

This chapter discusses how to use legislation. It first looks at the ‘anatomy’ of an Act of Parliament and describes each of its composite parts. It then considers the various means by which the courts can interpret the wording of statutory provisions, including a discussion of the impact of the European Communities Act 1972 and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

This chapter discusses how to use legislation. It first looks at the ‘anatomy’ of an Act of Parliament and describes each of its composite parts. It then considers the various means by which the courts can interpret the wording of statutory provisions, including a discussion of the impact of the European Communities Act 1972 and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

This chapter explains the significance of statutory interpretation and how problems of interpretation arise. The chapter considers in detail the courts’ approach to interpretation, and traditional rules such as the literal rule, the golden rule, and the mischief rule are all analysed with examples from the case law. In modern times the courts employ a more purposive approach to interpretation, and there is coverage of how this approach works in practice. In particular, the chapter outlines a range of intrinsic and extrinsic aids to interpretation that the courts can rely on in interpreting an Act of Parliament. Among others, these aids include the long title, cross-headings, marginal or side notes, dictionaries, pre-parliamentary materials, statutes on the same subject matter, and, most notably, Hansard. The chapter concludes with an overview of the rules of language, namely ejusdem generis, noscitur a sociis, and expressio unius est exclusio alterius.

Chapter

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter begins by identifying two types of rules. The first, which may be considered the basic or primary type, requires human beings to do or abstain from certain actions, whether they wish to or not. The second type of rules are in a sense parasitic upon or secondary to the first; for they provide that human beings may by doing or saying certain things introduce new rules of the primary type, extinguish or modify old ones, or in various ways determine their incidence or control their operations. The chapter then argues that in the combination of these two types of rule there lies what Austin wrongly claimed to have found in the notion of coercive orders, namely, ‘the key to the science of jurisprudence’. It attempts to show that most of the features of law which have proved most perplexing and have both provoked and eluded the search for definition can best be rendered clear, if these two types of rule and the interplay between them are understood. This union of elements is accorded a central place because of their explanatory power in elucidating the concepts that constitute the framework of legal thought.

Chapter

This chapter explains the significance of statutory interpretation and how problems of interpretation arise. The chapter considers in detail the courts’ approach to interpretation, and traditional rules such as the literal rule, the golden rule, and the mischief rule are all analysed with examples from the case law. In modern times the courts employ a more purposive approach to interpretation, and there is coverage of how this approach works in practice. In particular, the chapter outlines a range of intrinsic and extrinsic aids to interpretation that the courts can rely on in interpreting an Act of Parliament. Among others, these aids include the long title, cross-headings, marginal or side notes, dictionaries, pre-parliamentary materials, statutes on the same subject matter, and, most notably, Hansard. The chapter concludes with an overview of the rules of language, namely ejusdem generis, noscitur a sociis, and expressio unius est exclusio alterius.

Chapter

Family law is more often than not associated in people's minds with negative times in their lives such as relationship breakdowns, childcare disputes, and financial problems relating to family life. However, from a legal perspective, family law is a fascinating area of law as no two cases are ever the same. There are so many issues that need to be considered: Who does family law protect? Who does family law fail to protect? What human rights affect family law? How far should rules extend into people's intimate relationships? This chapter asks all of these questions and presents the focus of the chapters to come.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the nature and scope of fiduciary relationships, the duties that govern them, and the remedies for breach. It begins by considering the fiduciary duty of loyalty and disentangling it from other duties of loyalty. Next, it considers the ‘no conflict’ principle; self dealing and fair dealing rules; the duty not to complete with one’s principal; the profit opportunity doctrine; the no-profit rule; and the proprietary and personal nature of the liability to account.

Chapter

Both prosecutors and defence lawyers must have a good understanding of the rules of criminal evidence and be able to apply the rules in a highly practical way to the issues in a case. This chapter provides a brief introduction to the main evidential rules which are considered further in later chapters. In particular, it addresses the following: the purpose of rules of evidence; the core concepts of relevance, admissibility, and weight; and the different types of evidence.

Chapter

This chapter considers the statutory rules governing share capital requirements, especially those relating to the allotment of, and payment for, shares. The share capital measures frequently reflect long-established common law rules. This chapter discusses: the rules in share capital requirements; issuing shares at par, premium, or a discount; alteration of share capital; allotment of shares; payment for shares; and capital raising.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the director's duty to avoid conflict of interest. Central to a director's duties is the long-established equitable rule precluding a fiduciary from entering, without consent, into engagements in which he has, or can have, a personal interest conflicting, or which possibly may conflict, with the interests of those whom he is bound to protect (the no-conflict rule); and the equally inflexible rule that, without consent, a person in a fiduciary position is not entitled to profit from that position (the no-profit rule or, more accurately no secret profit rule).

Chapter

Both prosecutors and defence lawyers must have a good understanding of the rules of criminal evidence and be able to apply the rules in a highly practical way to the issues in a case. This chapter provides a brief introduction to the main evidential rules which are considered further in later chapters. In particular, it addresses the following: the purpose of rules of evidence; the core concepts of relevance, admissibility, and weight; and the different types of evidence.

Chapter

This chapter introduces some fundamentals that will underpin the understanding of law and ‘legal method’. It explains those core principles and techniques that underpin the process of legal reasoning. Topics discussed include the concept of law; functions of law, and some of the major functions of law; and the concept of regulation, which extends our understanding of law to forms of delegated legislation and ‘soft’ law and case law as it is developed by the courts. The chapter also discusses Parliament and legislation; the structure and role of the courts; the importance of procedural law; English law and the European Convention on Human Rights; and English law and the European Union.

Chapter

This chapter introduces some fundamentals that will underpin the understanding of law and ‘legal method’. It explains those core principles and techniques that underpin the process of legal reasoning. Topics discussed include the concept of law; functions of law, and the concept of regulation, which extends our understanding of law to include forms of delegated legislation and ‘soft’ law, and case law as it is developed by the courts. The chapter also discusses Parliament and legislation as a source of law; the structure and role of the courts; the importance of procedural law; the role of facts in legal decision-making; English law and the European Convention on Human Rights; and English law and the European Union.

Chapter

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the notions of impartiality (and bias) and independence. It first provides an overview of the scope and rationale of the rule against bias before discussing the connection between impartiality and procedural fairness. It then reviews the ‘automatic disqualification rule’ by which a decision-maker can be disqualified if he/she has a sufficient financial interest in the outcome of the decision-making process. It also explores the apprehension of bias and the ‘fair-minded observer rule’, along with the political dimensions of the rule against bias. Finally, it considers Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights in an administrative context and when Article 6(1) applies to administrative decision-making. A number of relevant cases are cited throughout the chapter, including R v. Sussex Justices, ex parte McCarthy [1924] 1 KB 256.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the jury trial. It discusses the influence of the judge on the trial process and outcome; how jury composition affects perceptions of the fairness and legitimacy of jury trial; the impact of jury composition and juror attitudes on verdicts; whether key evidential rules unduly favour the defence or prosecution; and attempts to further erode the practical significance of jury trial.