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Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

13. The emergence and forms of intellectual property law  

Systems of intellectual property law date back many centuries and play a very important role in the information technology field. The main forms of intellectual property law are patents, copyright and trade marks. All play important roles and are considered in this section of the book. Patents and copyright have been applied in an IT context from the early days of the computer whilst trade marks have come to assume more significance with the commercialization of the Internet and its use by major manufacturers who typically own many trade marks developed for use in the course of their activities in the physical environment. As with many areas, the connection between the real and virtual words is not exact. The application of the law of copyright to software has seldom been in doubt. It is clear that the unauthorized copying of all of a work is unlawful. What is not clear is the extent of the protection. The famous scientist Isaac Newton is quoted as saying “If I have seen further, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants”. Most later works build to some extent on their predecessors and there is a difficult dividing line between fair and unfair use of such works. Somewhat different issues apply in relation to patents – a branch of the law which offers the strongest protection but does require that works be innovative and produce a technical effect – that they should do something. This can be difficult to assess in respect of very fast-moving technologies.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

14. Moral rights  

This chapter explains the moral rights of the author in a copyright context. Moral rights emphasize the strong link between the work and its author. That link prevails regardless of the how the commercial exploitation of the work takes place. There are two core moral rights. First, there is the right to be identified, or the paternity right. This applies traditionally to literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic works, but it has been expanded to include films and performances. Second, there is the right of integrity, or the right to object to derogatory treatment of the work. This protects the reputation of the author, which again also has its value for users of the work. The discussion also includes the right against false attribution of the work; the right to privacy in relation to commissioned photographs; and consent and waiver.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

6. Moral rights  

This chapter assesses moral rights. From a human rights perspective, the distinction between economic and moral rights can be traced back to Art. 27(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The protection of the moral interests of the authors finds justification not only in the context of human rights but also under a special set of copyright rules that offer protection to non-pecuniary interests of the authors. The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CPDA) recognises four main moral rights: the right to be identified as the author or director of a work (this is the so-called paternity right); the right to object to derogatory treatment of a work (the so-called integrity right); the right to object to a false attribution of authorship in the case of a literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic work or a film; and the right of privacy in commissioned photographs and films.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

6. Nature of the Rights  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter is about the rights conferred by the law on copyright owners and the types of activity that amount to copyright infringement. It begins by considering the right to copy the work, in particular its distinct definition for different categories and types of work. It then looks at other rights granted to copyright owners, including distribution right (and the concept of its ‘exhaustion’); the right to rent and lend copies of the work, including the distinctive treatment of digital copies; the right to perform the work in public and UK law’s concept of ‘the public’; the right to communicate the work to the public, including the CJEU’s extensive case-law on the concept of ‘a new public’ and its treatment of hyperlinking, file-sharing, and content-sharing platforms; and the right to make an adaptation of the work. The chapter concludes by considering the copyright owner’s right to ‘authorize’ the carrying out of any of the exclusive rights as a mechanism to extend the field of responsibility.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

10. Moral Rights  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter focuses on moral rights conferred by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 on the authors of certain works to protect their non-pecuniary or non-economic interests. It begins by describing the nature of and rationales for grant of moral rights as well as a number of criticisms made about such rights. This is followed by a detailed consideration of the moral right of attribution or right of paternity, the right to object to false attribution, and the right of integrity. This discussion identifies when such rights arise (including the requirement of assertion of the attribution right), when the moral rights are infringed, and exceptions to such rights. The chapter also considers how far such rights can be waived.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Hill v Tupper (1863) 159 ER 51, High Court (Exchequer Chamber)  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Hill v Tupper (1863) 159 ER 51, High Court (Exchequer Chamber). The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Hill v Tupper (1863) 159 ER 51, High Court (Exchequer Chamber)  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Hill v Tupper (1863) 159 ER 51, High Court (Exchequer Chamber). The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

10. Realist criminology and victims  

This chapter focuses on realist criminology, a phenomenon that appeared under different names in Britain and the USA during the 1980s. Just as with the re-emergence of interactionism and the development of the ‘new criminologies’ in the 1960s, realist criminology owes much to the political background of the day: what is sometimes referred to as the ‘Reagan–Thatcher Decade’, with right-wing governments in both countries. In such a climate, it is hardly surprising that little interest was shown in considerations of why people commit crimes, but great interest was shown in doing something about it. Out of this, two ‘realisms’ have emerged: a ‘Right Realism’ and a ‘Left Realism’.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

18. Protection of databases  

Databases form a vitally important part of the information society. The traditional approach in the United Kingdom has been to protect their contents as compilations under the law of copyright. This contrasts with the approach adopted in civil law states which have historically required a more significant qualitative element as a condition for the award of copyright than has been the case in the United Kingdom. Databases would not meet this requirement – although many states would offer protection under unfair competition laws. The European Union’s database directive strikes something of a compromise between the two approaches. The chapter will consider the extent of the sui generis database right and consider its practical application in the, albeit limited, number of cases in which it has been considered by the courts.

Chapter

Cover The Principles of Land Law

11. Mortgages  

This chapter examines mortgages, which are fundamental to the functioning of modern land law. They are the means by which most people finance the acquisition of their property. However, mortgages are more than simply a commercial transaction between a lender and a homeowner. They are also a property right in themselves and this brings with it a wide variety of options for the lender in terms of recovering their security. They also pose huge risks for the borrower. The chapter then explains the nature of the mortgage right and considers what terms can and cannot form part of a mortgage agreement. It also details the formal requirements of mortgages in terms of their creation, and identifies problems in the creation of a mortgage and the effects of these, looking in particular at the issues caused by undue influence. Moreover, the chapter describes the rights and obligations of the borrower in a mortgage (mortgagor), as well as that of the lender (mortgagee). Finally, it reflects on the third party effects of a mortgage, priorities, and land registration.

Chapter

Cover The Principles of Land Law

12. Easements and Profits  

This chapter examines mortgages, which are fundamental to the functioning of modern land law. They are the means by which most people finance the acquisition of their property. However, mortgages are more than simply a commercial transaction between a lender and a homeowner. They are also a property right in themselves and this brings with it a wide variety of options for the lender in terms of recovering their security. They also pose huge risks for the borrower. The chapter then explains the nature of the mortgage right and considers what terms can and cannot form part of a mortgage agreement. It also details the formal requirements of mortgages in terms of their creation, and identifies problems in the creation of a mortgage and the effects of these, looking in particular at the issues caused by undue influence. Moreover, the chapter describes the rights and obligations of the borrower in a mortgage (mortgagor), as well as that of the lender (mortgagee). Finally, it reflects on the third party effects of a mortgage, priorities, and land registration.

Chapter

Cover McCoubrey & White's Textbook on Jurisprudence

11. The Legal and Political Philosophy of Immanuel Kant  

J. E. Penner and E. Melissaris

This chapter explores the legal and philosophy of Kant. It discusses the foundations of Kant’s political and legal philosophy from innate right to private right and public right; the original contract, the State, and law; and Kant on revolution.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

9. Unregistered designs  

This chapter discusses unregistered design protection. The chapter examines the UK unregistered design right established by Part III of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, and analyses the Community unregistered design which provides unregistered design protection across the EU. The chapter also considers in more detail the evolving and complex interaction between design protection and copyright in UK law, and the implications of Brexit for unregistered design protection, including the UK’s creation of two further UK domestic unregistered design rights, the continuing unregistered design and the supplementary unregistered design.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

13. Rights Associated with Copyright  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter deals with regimes that are related to, but fall outside of, the remit of copyright law: performers’ rights in their performances (recognized internationally and often designated as a ‘neighbouring right’ or, in the EU, a ‘related right’); database right, sometimes referred to as the sui generis database right; public lending right (that is, an author’s right to claim remuneration from a public fund, the remuneration being calculated by reference to the frequency with which a given author’s book is loaned by public libraries); rights relating to technological protection measures (‘TPMs’); rights management information (which, along with TPMs, are sometimes designated ‘para-copyright’); and the so-called droit de suite (artist’s resale royalty right, that is, the right to claim a proportion of the sale price when an artwork is publicly resold). The chapter discusses each regime in turn, considering relevant factors such as the subsistence, types of rights available, duration, infringement, exceptions, defences, and remedies.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

16. Adverse inferences from an accused’s silence or conduct  

This chapter discusses the adverse inferences that may be drawn against an accused from: his failure to testify; his failure, when questioned or charged, to mention facts which he could reasonably have been expected to have mentioned at that time and which he later relies on in his defence at trial; his failure or refusal, on arrest, to account for any object, substance, or mark that the police reasonably believe may be attributable to his participation in the commission of an offence; his refusal to consent to the taking of an intimate sample, such as a sample of blood, semen, or urine; and his failure to provide advance disclosure of the defence case, the nature of his defence, or the facts on which he takes issue with the prosecution.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

13. Mortgages  

This chapter examines mortgages—a form of proprietary security for the advancement of a loan. A bank or lender advances a loan and in return they are granted a mortgage: an interest in the borrower’s land. Mortgages are distinct from other loans because they are ‘secured’ on the property itself meaning that if the borrower fails to make repayments, the bank can take steps to recover its money including seeking possession of the property and selling it. This chapter explores the nature and creation of mortgages, the rights and powers enjoyed by mortgagors, the rights of mortgagees, the effect of undue influence on mortgages, and the priority of mortgages.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

21. IP enforcement and remedies  

This chapter discusses intellectual property enforcement and remedies available to an IP right holder in the event of an infringement of a right. It considers the UK rules on liability for groundless threats of infringement, including recent UK legislative developments in this field. It goes on to consider a range of interim remedies (including interim injunctions) and final remedies (including injunctions, intermediary injunctions, publicity orders, damages, and accounts of profits), all in the context of the EU IP Enforcement Directive and recent Court of Justice and UK case law developments. It also reviews criminal IP enforcement and enforcement considerations arising at an international level under TRIPS.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

18. Dealing in copyright  

This chapter discusses the commercial exploitation of copyright, both in a domestic and in a European context. It covers the Crown copyright in the UK; commercial exploitation of copyright in the UK; and exploitation under European law, i.e. friction with the free movement of goods and competition law.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

25. How Design Protection Arises in the United Kingdom  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter considers the way in which design right comes into being, whether by registration in the case of registered designs in the United Kingdom or automatically in the case of unregistered designs. It also discusses the conditions that must be satisfied for an unregistered design right to arise, as well as the procedures for applying for national registered design protection in the UK. The chapter also explains the ramifications of Brexit for design protection in the UK.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

30. Design Right  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter focuses on the unregistered Design Right as a means of protecting designs in the United Kingdom under Part III of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. It begins by considering the subsistence of the Design Right, with emphasis on the requirement that there be a ‘design’ and exclusions to design protection by the unregistered design right. The chapter then discusses issues of ownership, duration, and infringement as well as the defences that are available in cases of infringement of unregistered designs.