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Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

1. Introduction  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This introductory chapter explains how contract law is structured and how it fits into the overall scheme of the law of obligations and into English law more generally. It explains the boundaries between contract law, torts and unjust enrichment and restitution. It also explains the wider range of situations covered by the law of contract, and puts the law of contract into its social and economic context.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

1. Introduction  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This introductory chapter explains how contract law is structured and how it fits into the overall scheme of the law of obligations and into English law more generally. It explains the boundaries between contract law, torts and unjust enrichment, and restitution. It also explains the wider range of situations covered by the law of contract, and puts the law of contract into its social and economic context.

Chapter

Cover The Law of Trusts

16. Restitution, unjust enrichment, and the law of trusts  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the various ways in which the law of trusts can be seen to provide remedies that can be described as ‘restitutionary’, and whether any aspects of the law of trusts should be treated as part of the law of unjust enrichment. The areas of trust law where these issues have been most often raised: the law of resulting trusts, the law of tracing, and the law governing breach of trust, are discussed in detail.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

23. Additional chapter: An outline of the law of restitution  

This chapter presents an outline of the law of restitution and the factors that might make an enrichment unjust. The law of restitution is part of the law of obligations alongside contract and tort, although it also includes elements of property law. The law of restitution can be seen as a response to an unjust enrichment where the defendant should not be unjustly enriched at the expense of the claimant, although the principles may extend beyond this. Unjust enrichment requires one party to have been enriched; for the enrichment to have been at the expense of the other party; and for the enrichment to have been unjust. There are defences available to the enriched party.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Westdeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale v Islington London Borough Council [1996] 2 AC 669, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Westdeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale v Islington London Borough Council [1996] 2 AC 669, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

30. Alternatives to punishment  

This chapter evaluates the alternative means of responding to offenders and their crimes which have emerged in criminal justice and have been gaining wider recognition. Those who favour innovations of this kind tend to reject conventional assumptions and approaches, proposing new principles for the operation of the justice system. The chapter considers two distinct but similar challenges to conventional models of justice which have developed from this viewpoint: restorative justice and diversion. Restorative justice is based on the presumption that dealing with crime is a process rather than a single act or decision, that it involves collaboration between those with a stake in the offence, and that it emphasises healing as well as ‘putting things right’. Diversionary interventions, which can include community service, restitution, and education, as well as elements of restorative practice, provide an opportunity for the offender to avoid criminal charges or formal judicial processes, albeit sometimes by meeting certain conditional requirements.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Westdeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale v Islington London Borough Council [1996] 2 AC 669, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Westdeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale v Islington London Borough Council [1996] 2 AC 669, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

11. Illegality  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This chapter considers what counts as illegality and the effect of illegality on a contract (and consequent restitution). The approach of the Courts to illegality has been transformed for the better, and simplified, by the Supreme Court in Patel v Mirza in 2016. Illegal conduct, tainting a contract, can vary widely from serious crimes (eg murder) to relatively minor crimes (eg breach of licensing requirements) through to civil wrongs and to conduct that does not comprise a wrong but is contrary to public policy. As regards the effect of illegality, where a statute does not deal with this, the common law approach is now to apply a range of factors. A final section of the chapter examines contracts in restraint of trade.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

17. Non-compensatory remedies  

Specific performance, debt, and restitution

This chapter considers a range of non-compensatory remedies that are available at English law in cases of breach. Non-compensatory remedies seek to respond to breach of contract in ways other than compensation. The starting point for non-monetary obligations is that breach is best remedied through the award of damages. Literal enforcement of such an obligation, through an order for specific performance or an injunction, is only awarded in exceptional circumstances. In contrast, obligations involving the payment of a definite sum of money are frequently literally enforced through the remedy of debt. This chapter first examines literal performance as a non-compensatory remedy before discussing debt, gain-based remedies, and restitution interest.

Chapter

Cover O'Sullivan & Hilliard's The Law of Contract

1. General themes and issues  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter offers an introduction to the law of contract and contract theory. It explains that the law of contract provides the ground rules for what is needed for a contract to be valid and enforceable and for resolving disputes. It introduces the reader to key themes and concepts in the law of contract, and considers the crucial borderlines with others legal subjects, such as tort, restitution and public law. This chapter also considers some international developments beyond the domestic law of contract.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Bartlett v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd (Nos 1 & 2) [1980] Ch 515, Chancery Division  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Bartlett v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd (Nos 1 & 2) [1980] Ch 515, Chancery Division. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Patel v Mirza [2016] UKSC 42, Supreme Court  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Patel v Mirza [2016] UKSC 42, Supreme Court. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Jacobs, White, and Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights

20. Protection of Property  

This chapter examines protection of the right to property in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It discusses the provisions of Article 1 of Protocol 1 and explains that all the provisions of the Convention, including Articles 13 to 18, apply equally to the rights guaranteed by the First Protocol. The chapter also suggests that the Strasbourg Court has come to approach the protection of property rights using much the same methodology as it adopts in relation to complaints of violations of the rights protected by Articles 8 to 11. It examines the application of the right to property to issues such as rent control and restitution, especially focusing on cases arising from the transition of post-Soviet States to democracy, and cases arising from armed conflict.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Bartlett v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd (Nos 1 & 2) [1980] Ch 515, Chancery Division  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Bartlett v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd (Nos 1 & 2) [1980] Ch 515, Chancery Division. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Patel v Mirza [2016] UKSC 42, Supreme Court  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Patel v Mirza [2016] UKSC 42, Supreme Court. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

15. Liability of Public Authorities  

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the nature and operation of the liability of public authorities, with particular emphasis on the tensions between the equality principle, a concern that authorities ought to be specially protected, and a concern that authorities ought to be subject to wider and more onerous obligations. The chapter first considers the relationship of public authority liability with judicial review and goes on to discuss the law of torts, especially the tort of negligence and what circumstances courts ought to impose negligence liability on public authorities for harm caused through exercises of statutory discretion. It then explores negligence liability in relation to omissions, human rights, and misfeasance in public office. It also reviews damages under the Human Rights Act 1998, contracts, restitution, and state liability in European Union law.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

1. Introduction  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This introductory chapter first considers the nature and function of contract. It then discusses the contractual obligations in English law; the content of the contract law as set out in this book, which is concerned with the ‘general principles’ of contract rather than the detailed rules applicable to different types of contracts; the location of contract as part of the law of obligations and its relation to other parts of the law of obligations, tort and restitution of an unjust enrichment, and property law.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

19. Restitutionary Awards  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This Chapter considers restitutionary remedies for breach of contract. It discusses the recovery of money paid, restitution in respect of services or goods, and an account of profits or damages measured by benefit to contract-breaker.