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Chapter

Cover The Successful Law Student: An Insider's Guide to Studying Law

7. Finding and Using Legal Materials and Resources  

This chapter considers the wide range of sources that a law student will need to discover and explore in their legal studies for a range of different purposes. Guidance is given on different legal and other sources and their importance, including the difference between primary and secondary resources and their place in legal learning. Guidance is also provided on navigating the way to the right resources and using them to guide the student to greater understanding. This chapter considers the various resources available in the modern university, both traditional library resources and additional digital resources, and resources in the wider context of how these sources can be accessed and other study tools. This includes consideration of the ‘virtual learning environment’ or VLE.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

5. Health Resource Allocation  

A. M. Farrell and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses the allocation of health resources. No resources are finite, and this certainly applies in the health context. Across the UK’s four nations, health care is free at the point of need; this raises complex political and ethical questions about adequate funding, an appropriate calibration of supply and demand, and balance between maximising health and promoting health equity. This chapter explores allocation at the global, national, and individual levels, looking in depth at metrics such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and organisations such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), a public body that produces evidence-based guidance and advice for care practitioners, develops quality standards and performance metrics for those providing and commissioning care services, and provides a range of information services for commissioners, practitioners, and managers across health and social care. This chapter emphasises that while NICE and similar bodies aim to make decisions grounded in clinical need and efficiency, inevitably they must also include a consideration of what is best for the health service itself, and this means that scientific value and social value judgements cannot be dissociated in such a taxation-funded service.

Chapter

Cover Birnie, Boyle, and Redgwell's International Law and the Environment

11. Conservation of Nature, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity  

Our survival on earth, this chapter argues, depends on the conservation of the world’s natural resources. These resources comprise of soil, water, the atmosphere, plants, trees, and other life forms. The chapter looks at the earth’s current ‘ecological footprint’ and the future of that ecological footprint as it stands now. There is now widespread scientific consensus that biodiversity is being lost, and that pressures on biodiversity are increasing. The chapter asks what we can do about this, in terms of international law. The chapter identifies how international law seeks to ensure the protection and conservation and sustainable use of nature, its ecosystems and biodiversity, and the effectiveness of measures developed to conserve land?based living resources, forests, and deserts.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

1. How to Study Law for Businesses  

This chapter begins by identifying the reasons that make the study of business law an important aspect in the wider context of business. It identifies strategies and good practice that will help a student with their studies, and provides a sample problem-type question and guidance on how to prepare a law-based answer. Business law is a distinct topic from other modules on accountancy, business, and management courses. A knowledge of the law cannot be bluffed—it is necessary to be aware of the relevant laws and think about business problems from a legal standpoint. This approach will ensure that legal questions are answered with reference to the law, which is crucial to being successful in the business law module.

Book

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts
Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. Essential Cases provides you with succinct summaries of some of the landmark and most influential cases in equity and trusts. Each summary begins with a review of the main case facts and decision. The summary is then concluded with expert commentary on the case from the author, Derek Whayman, including his assessment of the wider questions raised by the decision.

Chapter

Cover Criminology Skills

1. What is criminology?  

This introductory chapter attempts to answer the question ‘what is criminology?’ by exploring the origin of criminology as a discipline together with an overview of some of the types of question that may be of interest to criminologists. It sets out the structure of the remainder of the book, the first part of which introduces the source material that is commonly used in the study of criminology. The second part focuses on academic skills, while the final part concentrates on research methods.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

12. Health Resources and Dilemmas in Treatment  

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses ethical and legal aspects of the global distribution of medical resources; the allocation of national resources; and medical treatment of the individual. It argues that so long as decisions are made taking into account fundamental moral values and principles of equity, impartiality, and fairness, and provided the bases for decision making are flexible in relation to the times, then the underlying system is just and is likely to yield just results.

Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

14. Common spaces and cooperation in the use of natural resources  

This chapter discusses some legal issues that can arise in connection with the use of shared resources; the generation and use of energy and other uses of transboundary water resources; and other forms of transboundary co-operation, as well as issues specific to the polar regions and outer space.

Chapter

Cover Learning Legal Rules

2. Finding the Law  

This chapter introduces the main resources and techniques needed for legal research, the development of legal ‘information literacy’, and the appropriate methods to undertake research: the capabilities necessary for learning and working in an information-rich, digital society. It demonstrates how digital technologies are changing the nature of law and legal information from physical to a virtual space, and with it the research process. Digital media have created new challenges, for example for intellectual property law, for data security and protection, and for the criminal law in responding to a wide range of electronic crime. The discussion of specific research tools and techniques covers literary sources; case law; legislation; EU law; and using a number of online resources.

Chapter

Cover The Substantive Law of the EU

9. Union Citizenship  

This chapter examines the concept of Union citizenship and the rights EU citizens enjoy. European citizenship allows individuals a variety of associative relations based on economic, social, cultural, scholarly, and even political activities, irrespective of the traditional territorial boundaries of the European nation states. In particular, this chapter examines the rights enjoyed by citizens under the Citizens’ Rights Directive 2004/38, including family rights and the rights citizens enjoy irrespective of whether they are economically active.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

22. Environmental law  

Elisa Morgera and Kati Kulovesi

This chapter examines EU environmental law. It first introduces the legal framework of EU environmental policy by explaining its historic evolution, as well as its current objectives and principles. It then explores three representative areas of EU environmental law—nature conservation, water, and climate change—with a view to highlighting two trends of broader relevance to the understanding of EU environmental law as a whole: the interaction between environmental protection and economic development, and the interaction between EU and international environmental law. The chapter illustrates the very broad and ambitious objectives of EU environmental law, its progressive development and its continuing challenges, distinguishing areas of the EU environmental acquis that appear at different stages of development. Attention is focused on cutting-edge regulatory approaches in relation to freshwater and climate change. This chapter also demonstrates that the study of EU environmental law would not be complete without an understanding of the role of the EU as a global environmental actor, proactively engaged in the development and implementation of international environmental law. To a significant extent, EU environmental law aims to fulfil the international environmental obligations of the Union and/or its Member States. In addition, the EU increasingly develops its internal environmental regulation to anticipate or even influence the making of international environmental law.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

21. Environmental law  

Elisa Morgera and Kati Kulovesi

This chapter examines EU environmental law. It first introduces the legal framework of EU environmental policy by explaining its historic evolution, as well as its current objectives and principles. It then explores three representative areas of EU environmental law - nature conservation, water, and climate change - with a view to highlighting two trends of broader relevance to the understanding of EU environmental law as a whole: the interaction between environmental protection and economic development, and the interaction between EU and international environmental law.

Chapter

Cover International Law

21. The Law of the Sea  

Malcolm D Evans

This chapter explores how international law has responded to the increasing complexity of the uses of maritime space, focusing particularly on recent trends and developments. It considers the nature of the sovereign rights which States exercise over both space and living and non-living resources, and the extent to which control may be exercised over other users of the seas. It provides an introduction to the basic rules concerning the principal zones of maritime jurisdiction and looks at the rules for the construction of baselines and the problem of determining boundaries where claims to zones overlap. It also considers trends in governance over fisheries and over the deep seabed. While the law of the sea has undergone a remarkable transformation in the last 50 years, much more needs to be done to balance the competing demands of access to ocean space whilst recognizing the need to preserve order and good governance.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Kunqian Catherine Zhu and Man Lavette Chen v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Case C-200/02), EU:C:2004:639, [2004] ECR I-9925, 19 October 2004  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Kunqian Catherine Zhu and Man Lavette Chen v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Case C-200/02), EU:C:2004:639, [2004] ECR I-9925, 19 October 2004. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Elisabeta Dano and Florin Dano v Jobcenter Leipzig (Case C-333/13), EU:C:2014:2358, [2014] ECR I-2358, 11 November 2014  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Elisabeta Dano and Florin Dano v Jobcenter Leipzig (Case C-333/13), EU:C:2014:2358, [2014] ECR I-2358, 11 November 2014. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Kunqian Catherine Zhu and Man Lavette Chen v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Case C-200/02), EU:C:2004:639, [2004] ECR I-9925, 19 October 2004  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Kunqian Catherine Zhu and Man Lavette Chen v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Case C-200/02), EU:C:2004:639, [2004] ECR I-9925, 19 October 2004. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Elisabeta Dano and Florin Dano v Jobcenter Leipzig (Case C-333/13), EU:C:2014:2358, [2014] ECR I-2358, 11 November 2014  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Elisabeta Dano and Florin Dano v Jobcenter Leipzig (Case C-333/13), EU:C:2014:2358, [2014] ECR I-2358, 11 November 2014. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover Birnie, Boyle, and Redgwell's International Law and the Environment

12. Conservation of Marine Living Resources  

This chapter argues that the conservation of marine living resources presents complex problems of regulation and management. The oceans represent the least understood ecosystem on this earth and this makes the conservation of marine life and resources, and the regulation of such, very difficult and complicated. The chapter gives an overview of the law as it stands. International law on conservation and sustainable use of marine living resources has developed very slowly thus far. Effective regimes for conservation of marine living resources have to address not only sustainable use of targeted stocks, but also incidental catch of other species, conservation of biological diversity, and protection of the marine ecosystems which provide the main habitat for fish stocks and other species. The chapter concludes that developing a legal regime that provides for sustainable use and conservation of the ocean’s living resources and biological diversity within the framework of the general law of the sea will continue to remain problematic.

Book

Cover Criminology Skills

Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski

Criminology Skills covers both study skills and research skills in one manageable volume. The text is designed to enable you to develop an integrated understanding of the key skills required to succeed in your study of criminology. A three-part structure introduces you to the skills of finding source materials and takes you through the academic skills you will need to succeed in your degree, before finishing with a section on research methods and writing dissertations and research reports. The book provides an ideal introduction to the key study and research skills that you will need to demonstrate during your study and practice of criminology. Criminology Skills first helps you establish a strong skills foundation before incrementally building to a more advanced level increasing the competence, and confidence, with which you will be able to approach projects that require strong academic and research skills. After an introduction to the study of criminology, the book covers: books and journals; statistics and official publications; media and web sources; criminal law; study skills; writing skills; referencing and avoiding plagiarism; essay writing; presentations; revision and examinations; research ethics; gathering data; quantitative analysis; qualitative analysis; and dissertations and research reports. It is accompanied by online resources.

Chapter

Cover Birnie, Boyle, and Redgwell's International Law and the Environment

1. International Law and the Environment  

This chapter provides an overview of the purpose of this book. It starts by saying what the book does not expect to do. The text does not intend to answer the question whether the law we have now serves the needs of environmental justice or fairness among nations, generations, or peoples. It does, however, attempt to show, inter alia, how international law has developed a framework for cooperation on environmental matters between developed and developing states; for the adoption of measures aimed at control of pollution and conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; for the resolution of international environmental disputes; for the promotion of greater transparency and public participation in environmental decision-making; and for the adoption and harmonization of national environmental law.