1-20 of 49 Results

  • Keyword: research x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Criminology

5. Researching crime and criminal justice  

Emma Wincup

This chapter charts the development of the empirical research tradition in criminology; outlines the range of research designs and methods available to criminological researchers; draws attention to the particular challenges criminologists face when conducting research; and identifies new methodological developments currently influencing criminology.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

4. How criminology produces knowledge  

This chapter investigates how researchers create knowledge in criminology. It covers two themes: first, the empirical research methods used in the discipline, and how understanding and knowledge of crime can be developed by applying, analysing, and evaluating criminological information. Secondly, the chapter discusses how this knowledge and understanding is influenced by the three important and interlinking factors of subjectivity (personal and disciplinary perspectives and opinions), supposition (guesswork, assumption), and study (for example, scholarship and conducting empirical and other types of research). ‘Empirical methods’ are the generation of evidence through (sensory) experience, particularly using experiments and observations. The chapter looks at the different research methods available to criminologists, covering both primary and secondary sources.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

32. Conducting criminological research  

This chapter focuses on the process of conducting criminological research. Regardless of the size of the research, the same key principles and elements apply. The chapter begins by looking at how to choose a research or dissertation topic and how to conduct the necessary academic reading in this area and decide on an appropriate research methodology for that topic. It then considers how the project can be effectively planned and organised, and provides some advice on writing up the research and demonstrating critical thinking. Finally, the chapter identifies the fundamental ethical principles for conducting research: encouraging engagement with ethical thinking that goes further than a tick on a box of a dissertation proposal. These steps will develop the research experience and skills necessary for the ‘next step’ of continuing higher education or progressing into employment.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

8. Research  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter explores legal research and research skills in practice. It explains the purpose of legal research. A practical legal research strategy is provided, and guidance is given on each stage of that strategy. Information is provided about how to analyse a research task. Different types of resources are considered, including primary and secondary sources. Consideration is given to electronic sources, and how to identify a decent electronic source from one which is not appropriate. Information is provided about the most popular online databases, including how to ensure your research is up to date. Finally, guidance is provided about how to record the research trail and how to report the results of the research.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

8. Research  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter first explains the purpose of legal research. It then discusses approaches and strategies for carrying out legal research in both academia and practice, which include planning, research techniques, updating, and recording and presenting research. It also considers primary and secondary sources of legal material.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

10. Ethico-Legal Issues Affecting Children  

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter examines a range of ethico-legal issues as the impact on children. The focus is one consent of mature minors, and the limits therefore, and also on the range of rights and responsibilities relating to children concerning protection of the ir personal data. The chapter then discusses ethical and legal aspects of non-therapeutic research on children; therapeutic research on children; foetal research and experimentation; and embryos and embryonic stem cell research.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Public Law

12. Coursework  

The Q&A series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each chapter includes typical questions, diagram problem and essay answer plans, suggested answers, notes of caution, tips on obtaining extra marks, the key debates on each topic, and suggestions on further reading. This chapter contains some advice on writing coursework. The contents range from the mechanics of how coursework fits into the assessment of the module to the rules on presentation and referencing. The standard referencing system used for law is OSCOLA, the Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities. There is advice on researching coursework, such as the use of primary legal materials and articles, an explanation about how the coursework might be marked, and some straightforward advice on plagiarism is given. A coursework example question, with accompanying answer guidance, is also available.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

15. Contraception and Abortion  

A. M. Farrell and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses ethical and legal aspects of controlling fertility and birth. It begins by addressing the highly contested concept of personhood, before turning to consider varying forms of contraception, including contragestation and sterilisation (with a focus on non-consensual sterilisation of individuals judged to lack capacity). The chapter then considers the termination of pregnancy (including approaches across the UK and Ireland, and looking at how the law has evolved with regard to abortion), the position of the non-gestational parent, and the use of conscientious objection by care givers. The chapter concludes with a discussion on foetal research and experimentation, and foetal materials.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

21. Surveillance and security in a risk society  

Richard Jones

This chapter considers the issues of security, risk, and surveillance. It discusses the meaning of these terms within criminology; introduces key relevant theories; summarizes criminological research in these areas; identifies some new security and surveillance technologies; and discusses their implications, concerns, and debates surrounding their use.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

7. Crime and media: understanding the connections  

Chris Greer

This chapter examines the link between crime and media. It summarizes major themes and debates that have shaped the research agenda, and considers some less well-rehearsed issues such as the changing global communications marketplace, the development of new media technologies, and the significance of these for understanding the connections between crime and media. The chapter is organized as follows. The first section offers some background information and addresses the crucial question of why exploring media images of crime and control is important. The second section considers how scholars have researched crime and media, and presents an overview of the main findings. The third section examines the dominant theoretical and conceptual tools that have been used to understand and explain media representations of crime. The final section considers the evidence for the influence of media representations, both on criminal behaviour and fear of crime.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Equity and Trusts

16. Skills for Success in Coursework Assessments  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans, suggested answers, and author commentary. This book offers advice on what to expect in exams and how best to prepare. This chapter gives advice on skills for success in coursework assessments.

Chapter

Cover Medical Law

10. Clinical Research  

This chapter first summarizes the rules governing experiments on animals. It then examines international codes of research ethics and the UK’s regulatory system; the role of ethics committees in authorizing and monitoring research; whether the benefits and burdens of research participation are evenly distributed; conflicts of interests and publication ethics; and compensation for injuries sustained as a result of participation in research.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

17. Dissertations  

This chapter focuses on the range of different skills involved in the production of a dissertation. It begins by outlining the reasons for writing a dissertation. It then discusses the choice of dissertation topic and formulating a research question; writing a dissertation proposal; planning and organization; researching for a dissertation; and the writing process.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

17. Dissertations  

This chapter focuses on the range of different skills involved in the production of a dissertation. It begins by outlining the reasons for writing a dissertation. It then discusses the choice of dissertation topic and formulating a research question; writing a dissertation proposal; planning and organization; researching for a dissertation; and the writing process.

Book

Cover Criminology Skills

Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski

Criminology Skills covers both study skills and research skills in one manageable volume. The text is designed to enable you to develop an integrated understanding of the key skills required to succeed in your study of criminology. A three-part structure introduces you to the skills of finding source materials and takes you through the academic skills you will need to succeed in your degree, before finishing with a section on research methods and writing dissertations and research reports. The book provides an ideal introduction to the key study and research skills that you will need to demonstrate during your study and practice of criminology. Criminology Skills first helps you establish a strong skills foundation before incrementally building to a more advanced level increasing the competence, and confidence, with which you will be able to approach projects that require strong academic and research skills. After an introduction to the study of criminology, the book covers: books and journals; statistics and official publications; media and web sources; criminal law; study skills; writing skills; referencing and avoiding plagiarism; essay writing; presentations; revision and examinations; research ethics; gathering data; quantitative analysis; qualitative analysis; and dissertations and research reports. It is accompanied by online resources.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

20. Biomedical Human Research and Experimentation  

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses ethical and legal aspects of biomedical research. After highlighting the evolution and acceleration of rule-making in this setting, it differentiates between research and experimentation, and articulates a core regulatory concept, namely risk. It then covers ethical codes and legal instruments in human biomedical research, research ethics committees, randomised controlled trials, and experimental treatment, paying particular attention to informed consent and research involving people lacking capacity. It also addresses the unethical researcher, compensation for personal injury in research, research involving human tissue and personal data, and new approaches to research governance.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

10. Skills for Success in Coursework Assessments  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents a sample coursework essay question on EU law along with the examiner’s guidance to approaching coursework questions, tips, an answer plan, and a suggested answer for the sample question.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

43. Criminological engagements  

Alison Liebling, Fergus McNeill, and Bethany E. Schmidt

This chapter considers the relationships between criminology and the worlds of penal policy, practice, and activism. It focuses, in particular, on the day-to-day interactions the authors of the chapter forge in their research lives and on their effects and failures as engaged criminologists. The chapter supports forms of criminological engagement that are subtle, long term, and relational rather than occasional, mechanical, linear, or instrumental, and proposes that these forms of engagement improve understanding but require constant reflection and negotiation. This chapter argues that knowledge-generation is slow and cumulative; it takes time to ‘read a situation’ in complex human and social environments and it should be an iterative process with those in research, in practice, or with lived experience teaching and learning from each other every step of the way. For knowledge to ‘do good’, it needs to be (qualitatively) ‘good’. It should be produced through patient, honest, rigorous, and disciplined, but also deeply engaged, forms of enquiry. This chapter suggests that our institutional structures often fail to support this model of research.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

6. Health Research and Innovation  

A. M. Farrell and E. S. Dove

This chapter covers the regulatory environment of health research and biotechnological innovation in the UK, with some specific focus on genomics (including gene editing), artificial intelligence, and brain organoids. The Covid-19 pandemic demonstrated the limitations and strengths of a regulatory regime that enables (or thwarts) research into life-saving treatments and vaccines, as well as the importance of sharing data within and across organisations and institutions to address health emergencies. The chapter covers the governance of health research (focusing on biomedical research), the regimes that seek to promote innovation in science and medicine while accounting for the risks of biomedical research, as well as the development of research ethics codes. Following Brexit, the UK’s regulatory landscape for health research is somewhat in flux, with a flurry of policy papers and consultations regarding proposed legislative reform. As such, it remains to be seen what the contours of the landscape will be, and whether it promotes or hinders innovation—and creates fewer or greater risks for patients and research participants.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

23. Policing  

Trevor Jones

This chapter, which considers some key themes within policing research, begins by discussing the definition of ‘policing’, and its growth as a focus of political concern and criminological enquiry. It outlines the organization and structure of policing in England and Wales. The chapter then examines what the police actually do in practice; provides an overview of some contrasting models of policing; and explores several key debates within the policing literature.