1-13 of 13 Results

  • Keyword: representations x
Clear all

Chapter

This chapter examines the link between crime and media. It summarizes major themes and debates that have shaped the research agenda, and considers some less well-rehearsed issues such as the changing global communications marketplace, the development of new media technologies, and the significance of these for understanding the connections between crime and media. The chapter is organized as follows. The first section offers some background information and addresses the crucial question of why exploring media images of crime and control is important. The second section considers how scholars have researched crime and media, and presents an overview of the main findings. The third section examines the dominant theoretical and conceptual tools that have been used to understand and explain media representations of crime. The final section considers the evidence for the influence of media representations, both on criminal behaviour and fear of crime.

Chapter

This chapter describes how the sociology of crime originally stemmed from professional and political preoccupations with the problems presented by the practical management of crime and punishment but then evolved and expanded in a rather unsystematic fashion over some two centuries into a semi-detached academic discipline that addresses the various ways in which social order, social control, and social representations of rule-breaking are said to affect the etiology of crime.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the terms or details of a contractual agreement, and considers the implications of what the parties intend to include in the agreement, what they did not mean to be included in the contract, and what significance different terms may have in the contract. It distinguishes between the terms of a contract and representations, and considers whether, when a term has been identified as such, it is a ‘condition’ or a ‘warranty’. The chapter then studies how terms are implied into the contract and how this affects terms that have been expressed. It concludes by examining how parties may seek to exclude or limit a legal responsibility through the incorporation of an exclusion clause.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. The terms of the contract give substance to the contractual parties’ obligations. They lay down what each party is expected to do in performance of his obligations, and so it is crucial in any dispute to first establish the terms of the contract before looking to see whether one party has failed to perform his obligations. This chapter focuses on the positive terms of the contract. The discussions cover terms and representations; collateral warranties; implied terms; and conditions, warranties and innominate terms and the significance of the remedies, including termination, attached to each.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. The terms of the contract give substance to the contractual parties’ obligations. They lay down what each party is expected to do in performance of his obligations, and so it is crucial in any dispute to first establish the terms of the contract before looking to see whether one party has failed to perform his obligations. This chapter focuses on the positive terms of the contract. The discussions cover terms and representations; collateral warranties; implied terms; and conditions, warranties and innominate terms and the significance of the remedies, including termination, attached to each.

Chapter

A contract is composed of terms, the number of which depends upon the importance of the transaction. The terms of the contract are of great significance to the parties because they define their rights and liabilities. This chapter examines two preliminary issues, the first of which relates to the identification of the terms of the contract. How do the courts decide what is and what is not a term of the contract? The second issue concerns the entitlement of the parties to lead evidence of terms not to be found in their written contract. Where the parties take the time, trouble, and expense of reducing their agreement to writing, are they still entitled to adduce evidence of terms other than those found in the written document, or is the written document the sole source of the terms of their contract?

Chapter

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter examines what the parties to a contract have undertaken to do; that is, the terms of the contract, and the principles determining how the courts interpret the meaning of those contractual terms. It considers whether pre-contractual statements are terms or mere representations. The chapter then turns to written contracts, focusing on the parol evidence rule, entire agreement clauses, and the effect of signature on the contractual document. It also discusses oral contracts and incorporation of written terms in such contracts by means of signature, reasonable notice, consistent course of dealing, and common knowledge of the parties. In addition to express terms, this chapter looks at how terms are implied, particularly terms implied by the courts—terms implied in law and terms implied in fact. There is discussion of the typical implied terms in sale and supply contracts in the B2B and B2C context. Finally, this chapter focuses on the principles governing the interpretation of contractual terms.

Chapter

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the doctrine of legitimate expectation and its application to lawfully created expectations as well as the extent, if any, to which it may protect ‘unlawfully generated expectations’. It first explains why legitimate expectations must be protected and goes on to discuss the relationship between two variables that are in play in any situation which potentially engages the legitimate expectation principle: that of legitimacy and that of the mode of protection which may be extended to expectations which satisfy the first criterion. The chapter then tackles the problematic question of unlawfully created expectations, focusing on the importance of securing fairness for the individual. It also considers the issues of constitutionality and public interest, along with representations issued by unauthorized officials and representations concerning action which is ultra vires the agency.

Chapter

A contract is composed of terms, the number of which depends upon the importance of the transaction. The terms of the contract are of great significance to the parties because they define their rights and liabilities. This chapter examines two preliminary issues, the first of which relates to the identification of the terms of the contract. How do the courts decide what is and what is not a term of the contract? The second issue concerns the entitlement of the parties to lead evidence of terms not to be found in their written contract. Where the parties take the time, trouble, and expense of reducing their agreement to writing, are they still entitled to adduce evidence of terms other than those found in the written document, or is the written document the sole source of the terms of their contract?

Chapter

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter examines what the parties to a contract have undertaken to do; that is, the terms of the contract, and the principles determining how the courts interpret the meaning of those contractual terms. It considers whether pre-contractual statements are terms or mere representations. The chapter then turns to written contracts, focusing on the parol evidence rule, entire agreement clauses, and the effect of signature on the contractual document. It also discusses oral contracts and incorporation of written terms in such contracts by means of signature, reasonable notice, consistent course of dealing, and common knowledge of the parties. In addition to express terms, this chapter looks at how terms are implied, particularly terms implied by the courts—terms implied in law and terms implied in fact. There is discussion of the typical implied terms in sale and supply contracts in the B2B and B2C context. Finally, this chapter focuses on the principles governing the interpretation of contractual terms.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines issues related to the terms of the contract. It explains the distinction between terms and mere representations, and analyses the difference between signed and unsigned contracts in relation to the incorporation of express terms, including the L’Estrange v Graucob case. This chapter also considers the parol evidence rule and the modern contextual approach to contractual interpretation. Finally it considers implied terms, which can be implied by statute or by the courts, including the difference between implied terms in fact and at law, and introduces the developing concept of a relational contract.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines issues related to the terms of the contract. It explains the distinction between terms and mere representations, and analyses the difference between signed and unsigned contracts in relation to the incorporation of express terms, including the L’Estrange v Graucob case. This chapter also considers the parol evidence rule and the modern contextual approach to contractual interpretation. Finally it considers implied terms, which can be implied by statute or by the courts, including the difference between implied terms in fact and at law, and introduces the developing concept of a relational cotnract.

Chapter

This chapter describes how the sociology of crime originally stemmed from professional and political preoccupations with the problems presented by the practical management of crime and punishment in the emerging British state of the early nineteenth century but then evolved and expanded in a rather unsystematic fashion over some two centuries into a semi-detached academic discipline that addresses the various ways in which social order, social control, and social representations of rule-breaking are said to affect the aetiology of crime. It has never stopped swelling, fragmenting, and proliferating, partly because of a tendency for new generations of scholars to forget the past (see Plummer 2011), and partly in response to the emergence of new data, new methodologies (such as randomized control trials), new empirical areas (such as the global South), and new theoretical possibilities and political preoccupations (such as violence against women and girls) and social and ecological problems (such as climate change).