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Chapter

This chapter looks at equitable remedies-specifically, the remedies of rescission, rectification, and account. These remedies have a general application. Equitable remedies apply in all fields of law, from disputes over property or entitlement in contract and intellectual property, to preventing harm, or to the proceeds of wrongdoing being dissipated before a claim can be made against them. Equity evolved these remedies in the Court of Chancery to ameliorate the common law. Sometimes the remedies (like rescission) modified the harshness of the common law rules. Sometimes the remedies (like specific performance and injunction) provide alternative relief to the common law remedy of damages.

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This chapter concerns the remedy of specific performance. The remedy of specific performance is a remedy which applies only where someone has already engaged to do something, but has then failed to do so. An equitable remedy of specific performance is a personal remedy against the defendant, as equity acts in personam, and disobedience is classified as a contempt of court which can lead to imprisonment or other action. The remedy provides an alternative to an award of damages, and it may sometimes be awarded alongside damages. The remedy of specific performance evolved to allow the courts to compel a defendant to perform a contractual obligation. At common law, if a contracting party failed to do what was promised, the injured party had a remedy only in damages.

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Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter discusses the remedies granted by the court. If a claimant successfully establishes that the public authority has acted in contravention of one of the grounds of review, then the court may grant a remedy. The purpose of a remedy is to tell the public authority what it has to do to comply with the judgment and to ensure, as far as possible, that it obeys the courts’ decision. There are two main types of remedies available in judicial review cases: ordinary remedies (injunction, declaration, and damages) and prerogative remedies (quashing order, prohibiting order, and mandatory order). The chapter also discusses situations that may cause the court to refuse a remedy and the courts’ powers to grant a remedy under the Human Rights Act 1998.

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Titles in the Casebook on series provide readers with a comprehensive selection of case law extracts for their studies. Extracts have been chosen from a wide range of historical and contemporary cases to illustrate the reasoning processes of the courts and to show how legal principles are developed. This chapter distinguishes the process of following trust property from the process of tracing the value of trust property; the processes of following and tracing from the ultimate remedies employed to recover misapplied trust property; and remedies at common law, remedies in equity, and restitutionary remedies from each other.

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16. Equity  

Maxims, Doctrines, and Remedies

Titles in the Casebook on series provide readers with a comprehensive selection of case law extracts for their studies. Extracts have been chosen from a wide range of historical and contemporary cases to illustrate the reasoning processes of the courts and to show how legal principles are developed.Equity is a body of law developed originally by the old Court of Chancery in constructive competition with the common law courts, but now applied (since the Judicature Acts 1873–75) by the unified Supreme Court of England and Wales. The function of equity is to restrain or restrict the exercise of legal rights and powers in particular cases, whenever it would be unconscionable for them to be exercised to the full. This chapter examines the utility of equitable maxims, the operation of equitable doctrines, and the award of equitable remedies.

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Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter considers various factors that may prevent claimants from obtaining relief via judicial review. It first discusses the provisions of the ‘Pre-Action Protocol’ regarding court permission for judicial review before considering the requirement to exhaust alternative remedies. It then reviews the time limits for those who wish to use the judicial review procedure, focusing on the requirements of Senior Courts Act 1981 and Civil Procedure Rules Parts 3 and 54. It also explores questions of ‘prematurity’ and ‘ripeness’, along with the courts' general approach to the exclusion of judicial review and the role of standing, or locus standi, in initiating judicial review proceedings. The chapter concludes with an overview of the application of the ‘no difference’ principle in dealing with restriction of remedies.

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Specific performance is a remedy which orders the defendant to perform his obligations under the contract. It is an equitable remedy which is available in the discretion of the court. This chapter examines the circumstances in which the courts will make a specific performance order. Particular attention is given to the decision of the House of Lords in Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v. Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1. It also considers the question whether English law should develop a more liberal approach to the availability of specific performance and recognize the existence of a general right to specific performance.

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Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Trustees have personal liability in an action for compensation or account. If the action proves worthless in practice because the trustees are impecunious or have been declared bankrupt, and hence cannot repay trust monies to the fund, the beneficiaries may be able to trace the value of their trust property into bank accounts and into assets that have been bought with the trust property. It is the value of the trust property, not the precise item of the property itself, which is sought or traced in most cases. Tracing is a process that gives rise to the ultimate remedy of recovering misapplied money or property. This chapter examines tracing and the limits to common law tracing, the distinction between proprietary remedies and personal remedies, and how the rules for tracing in equity may be applied to unmixed funds, mixed funds and assets purchased with such funds. It also discusses the artificiality of the distinction between common law and equitable tracing rules, defences to the common law restitutionary claim and advantages of proprietary rights.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Trustees have personal liability in an action for compensation or account. If the action proves worthless in practice because the trustees are impecunious or have been declared bankrupt, and hence cannot repay trust monies to the fund, the beneficiaries may be able to trace the value of their trust property into bank accounts and into assets that have been bought with the trust property. It is the value of the trust property, not the precise item of the property itself, which is sought or traced in most cases. Tracing is a process that gives rise to the ultimate remedy of recovering misapplied money or property. This chapter examines tracing and the limits to common law tracing, the distinction between proprietary remedies and personal remedies, and how the rules for tracing in equity may be applied to unmixed funds, mixed funds and assets purchased with such funds. It also discusses the artificiality of the distinction between common law and equitable tracing rules, defences to the common law restitutionary claim and advantages of proprietary rights.

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This chapter explores the financial penalties imposed for breaches of competition law in the EU and the UK. Broadly speaking, enforcers have three kinds of ‘weapons’ in their arsenal to use against those who attack competition: remedies, imprisonment, and fines. The first of these weapons may be the most powerful, and includes conduct, structural, and third-party remedies. Incarceration — the second weapon — is a well-publicized feature of the US system, and has been an option in the UK in relation to hard-core cartel conduct since the entry into force of the Enterprise Act 2002 (EA). The argument in favour of the efficacy of fines, the third weapon, is a persuasive one: companies take part in anti-competitive conduct in order to boost profits; remove those profits and the incentive for illegal conduct vanishes.

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A decision of the majority of the partners on an ‘ordinary matter’ is binding on the minority. The wishes of the majority prevail over those of the minority who object. However, partnership law provides some machinery for protecting the partner who is aggrieved by what the other partners have done. This chapter considers the remedies available to a partner. These include dissolution of the partnership, appointment of a receiver, arbitration, and expulsion of the partner.

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A decision of the majority of the partners on an ‘ordinary matter’ is binding on the minority. The wishes of the majority prevail over those of the minority who object. However, partnership law provides some machinery for protecting the partner who is aggrieved by what the other partners have done. This chapter considers the remedies available to a partner. These include dissolution of the partnership, appointment of a receiver, arbitration, and expulsion of the partner.

Chapter

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter discusses the scope of judicial review. Judicial review is a procedure for obtaining the remedies specified in the Senior Courts Act 1981, namely the quashing order, the prohibiting order, and the mandatory order and declaration and injunction. The scope of judicial review, therefore, is the same as the scope of these remedies. Their boundaries, as set out already, are fairly clear, but in the non-statutory area they are uncertain.

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Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter illustrates escalating concerns about the risk of unacceptable disjunctions between Equity and the Common Law. The first section considers the relatively simple matter of Equity supplementing existing Common Law remedies. The next sections consider the more controversial question of Equity and the Common Law embarking on separate paths to deal with the same underlying wrong of negligence. The final sections deal with the intractable problem of how Equity protects Equitable property from abuse by the trustee and interference by other third parties. Each section explores the differences between the Equitable rules and their Common Law counterparts. It is crucial that these differences be soundly justified if they are to remain part of the common law.

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The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about the law of mortgages. The questions deal with issues such as their creation; clogs on the equity of redemption; the remedies of a mortgagee and protection of the mortgagor; and undue influence. Remedies of a mortgagee where the mortgagor defaults is an area of the law where, over recent years, the courts have had to consider entirely new social circumstances in relation to ‘negative equity’ and mortgage debt.

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Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter ties together the loose strands of judicial review to provide a checklist of issues that must be considered in order to diagnose a judicial review problem and to provide a legal opinion for clients. The following questions are addressed: What are judicial review problem questions designed to test? How does one approach a judicial review problem question? How does one approach whether the body may be judicially reviewed? How does one approach whether the client has standing or may intervene in an action? How does one approach whether the other preconditions are met? How does one approach the grounds for review? How does one deal with issues of remedy? How does one provide a final assessment to the client?

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This chapter addresses issues that must be confronted by litigants who propose to launch judicial review proceedings, and by courts dealing with such claims. First, it considers what sort of decisions can be judicially reviewed. Second, it examines the procedure under which courts subject decisions to judicial review. Third, it looks at the remedies that courts may issue in judicial review proceedings.

Chapter

A mortgage is a form of security for a loan, the purpose of which is often to finance the purchase of a house. This type of mortgage is known as acquisition mortgage. The house can also be used as security for other borrowing (for example, to pay for an extension to a house) or to finance a small business. Such mortgages are generally termed second, or even third, mortgages. The person who creates the mortgage is called the mortgagor and the person in whose favour it is created is called the mortgagee. The mortgagee is a secured creditor and can transfer the mortgage to another person. This chapter, which focuses on the nature of mortgages and how they are created, also discusses the role of mortgages, types of mortgage, rights of the mortgagor, rights and remedies of the mortgagee, and priority of mortgages.

Chapter

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter ties together the loose strands of judicial review to provide a checklist of issues that must be considered in order to diagnose a judicial review problem and to provide a legal opinion for clients. The following questions are addressed: What are judicial review problem questions designed to test? How does one approach a judicial review problem question? How does one approach whether the body may be judicially reviewed? How does one approach whether the client has standing or may intervene in an action? How does one approach whether the other preconditions are met? How does one approach the grounds for review? How does one deal with issues of remedy? How does one provide a final assessment to the client?

Chapter

At the end of a marriage or civil partnership, it is necessary to consider the practical and financial arrangements for the parties’ future: how they will share the value of the house(s), the pensions, and the savings and investments; who pays the debts; who gets personal belongings and furniture; and who has what income to live on. The law will only give effect to agreements that are objectively fair. If the parties cannot agree on a fair settlement, then courts have the power to impose a settlement on them by making a ‘financial remedy’ order in whatever terms it thinks are objectively fair. This power does not apply to unmarried couples. This chapter looks at what the court can do, the legal principles and practicalities that govern property redistribution, and some contentious issues and problems that may arise in financial remedy practice.