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Cover International Human Rights Law

11. Equality and non-discrimination  

This chapter examines equality and non-discrimination in international human rights law. It discusses the provisions of human rights laws, conventions, and declarations, and emerging grounds of discrimination will also be considered. As human rights are focused on the individual, it is perhaps not surprising that there are many people who are disadvantaged or marginalized in the enjoyment of their rights and freedoms due to the intersecting of two or more grounds of discrimination. The chapter suggests that there is a link between the concepts of equality and that of non-discrimination, and that the rule of non-discrimination is basically the negative restatement of the principle of equality.


Cover Employment Law

15. Religious discrimination  

This chapter deals with religious discrimination law under the Equality Act. It discusses the historical background of religious discrimination law, protected characteristics, prohibited conduct on grounds of religious discrimination,. Religion and belief is not specifically defined in the statute, and is left for the courts to define. Atheists are protected, but beliefs which ‘conflict with the fundamental rights of others’ are not. Dress codes are one of the most contested topics in this area of law. There are also specific exceptions for religious employers. The chapter also considers the conflict and competing interests between religious discrimination and other protected characteristics, such as sexual orientation and gender reassignment.


Cover Jacobs, White, and Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights

21. The Right to Education  

This chapter examines the protection of the right to education in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), discusses the provisions of Article 2 of the Protocol 1, and highlights the Strasbourg Court’s recognition of the connection of the right to education with the rights protected by Articles 8 to 10 of the Convention. It examines the developments concerning parents’ philosophical convictions and issues concerning religious symbols in the classroom. The chapter examines the use of the margin of appreciation doctrine and proportionality by the Court in order to balance different beliefs in an educational setting within a multicultural society.