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Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

13. Referencing and avoiding plagiarism  

This chapter focuses on referencing and avoiding plagiarism. These skills are of critical importance to law students since their academic work will inevitably require them to read, critically consider, and evaluate the work of others. However, they must ensure that they carefully and meticulously distinguish their own work, ideas, and arguments from those of the authors or judges encountered during their research. This is done by providing thorough references to the sources used in their work; failure to do so may lead to accusations of plagiarism. The chapter first explains the meaning of plagiarism in more detail and then discusses OSCOLA, the most frequently encountered referencing system in academic law.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

13. Referencing and avoiding plagiarism  

This chapter focuses on referencing and avoiding plagiarism. These skills are of critical importance to law students since their academic work will inevitably require them to read, critically consider, and evaluate the work of others. However, they must ensure that they carefully and meticulously distinguish their own work, ideas, and arguments from those of the authors or judges encountered during their research. This is done by providing thorough references to the sources used in their work; failure to do so may lead to accusations of plagiarism. The chapter first explains the meaning of plagiarism in more detail and then discusses OSCOLA, the most frequently encountered referencing system in academic law.

Chapter

Cover Criminology Skills

8. Referencing and avoiding plagiarism  

This chapter focuses on referencing and avoiding plagiarism. It explains the meaning of plagiarism in detail and introduces the Harvard style of referencing. It explains when references must be provided in order to avoid inadvertent plagiarism. The chapter discusses referencing printed materials, government publications, legal sources, audio-visual sources, and electronic sources consistently and thoroughly using Harvard (name-date) referencing.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Evidence

12. Skills for success in coursework assessments  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flow charts. This chapter gives guidance on answering coursework questions and expands on the distinguishing features of coursework which are research, authorities and citation. You will be expected to have researched in more than usual depth to answer these types of questions and to give full as well as accurate references for your arguments and analysis. The chapter also covers writing and reading; sources; academic writing; keeping organised notes; analysis, writing style and referencing; and assessment criteria. A coursework example question, with accompanying answer guidance, is also available.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Equity and Trusts

16. Skills for Success in Coursework Assessments  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans, suggested answers, and author commentary. This book offers advice on what to expect in exams and how best to prepare. This chapter gives advice on skills for success in coursework assessments.

Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

6. Preliminary references  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter considers the procedure whereby a national court may make a preliminary reference to the Court of Justice under Article 267 TFEU and receive a preliminary ruling on the questions which it has referred. The chapter examines the questions of law that may be referred to the Court of Justice; the criteria for the ‘court or tribunal’ which may make a reference; from which courts a reference is discretionary and from which it will be mandatory; references concerning the interpretation and validity of EU law; national courts’ decision-making process in preliminary references and the relevant guidelines and exceptions; procedures in the Court of Justice for dealing with preliminary references under Article 267 TFEU; and the effects of a preliminary ruling.

Chapter

Cover Learning Legal Rules

4. From Reading to Writing  

This chapter discusses the techniques involved in basic academic legal writing—an important aspect of one of the key skills required by employers, namely written communication. It covers writing legal essays—conveying information, constructing an argument, and applying the information and arguments to the essay title; answering legal problems and considering questions of legal liability; how to present your answers by use of the IRAC system; planning your answers and checking your work; the significance of referencing and the various methods used to reference work; and marking standards used by various quality assurance bodies and how law essays are marked.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

10. Skills for Success in Coursework Assessments  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents a sample coursework essay question on EU law along with the examiner’s guidance to approaching coursework questions, tips, an answer plan, and a suggested answer for the sample question.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

20. Defamation: foundational principles  

This chapter examines the foundational principles of defamation in tort law. It explains that there are two types of defamation, libel and slander, the former of which concerns ‘permanent’ and the latter of which concerns other imputations. The chapter discusses the main elements of defamatory imputation: reference, publication, and serious harm. It suggests, taking into account the defences examined in the next chapter, that liability for defamation reflects efforts to strike a balance between the interests of free speech and the preservation of one’s reputation. This chapter incorporates the provisions of the Defamation Act 2013 and analyses recent court cases exploring its provisions.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law

10. Skills for Success in Coursework Assessments  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This chapter deals with how to achieve success in coursework assessments in criminal law. It offers advice on how to get started, and the different approaches needed to write the longer, more detailed answers required of coursework. An example of a coursework answer is provided. Research and planning are essential. It is crucial to employ critical analysis, to stay relevant, and to stick to the word limit. Assessments must be approached logically and be tightly structured. Finally, students need to become familiar with correct referencing of legal authorities.

Chapter

Cover Complete Equity and Trusts

6. The disposal of property on death  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter on the disposal of property on death discusses the following: the general characteristics of wills; the doctrine of incorporation by reference; the origins of the secret trust; the difference between fully and half-secret trusts; the three elements of a secret trust: intention, communication, and acquiescence; mutual wills; donatio mortis causa (death-bed gifts); and the rule in Strong v Bird. All four of these doctrines provide exceptions to the strict rules governing wills and provide another example of equity mitigating the harshness of the law.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Human Rights and Civil Liberties

12. Skills for Success in Coursework Assessments  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers the skills required from students when completing assessments, including how to achieve success and high marks. It highlights the approach that needs to be taken when writing coursework in this legal area. The need for logical structured answers is also stressed. A coursework example question, with accompanying answer guidance, is also available.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

10. Judicial protection and EU remedies  

Albertina Albors-Llorens

This chapter provides an overview of the various procedural avenues to the Court of Justice of the European Union. It uses as a template the division between two main sets of proceedings: direct actions and preliminary references. Direct actions are brought directly either before the Court of Justice or the General Court; these are dealt with in their entirety by these courts. By contrast, preliminary references begin before a national court. When this court encounters a question on the interpretation or the validity of EU law, it may (or sometimes must) make a preliminary reference on this particular point to the Court of Justice.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

10. Judicial protection before the Court of Justice of the European Union  

Albertina Albors-Llorens

This chapter provides an overview of the various procedural avenues to the Court of Justice of the European Union. It uses as a template the division between two main sets of proceedings: direct actions and preliminary references. Direct actions are brought directly either before the Court of Justice or the General Court; these are dealt with in their entirety by these courts. By contrast, preliminary references begin before a national court. When this court encounters a question on the interpretation or the validity of EU law, it may (or sometimes must) make a preliminary reference on this particular point to the Court of Justice.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

13. Skills for Success in Coursework Assessments  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter provides advice on preparing coursework in company law and the skills required to complete it successfully, to ensure you are best prepared for your assessment. Two coursework example questions, one essay and one problem question, with accompanying answer guidance, are also available. The chapter provides lots of important tips for coursework success and includes a final checklist of issues to consider before submitting your work.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Banco de Santander (Case C-274/14), EU:C:2020:17, 21 January 2020  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Banco de Santander (Case C-274/14), EU:C:2020:17, 21 January 2020. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Srl CILFIT and Lanificio di Gavardo SpA v Ministry of Health (Case 283/81), EU:C:1982:335, [1982] ECR 3415, 6 October 1982  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Srl CILFIT and Lanificio di Gavardo SpA v Ministry of Health (Case 283/81), EU:C:1982:335, [1982] ECR 3415, 6 October 1982. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Foto-Frost v Hauptzollamt Lübeck-Ost (Case C-314/85), EU:C:1987:452, [1987] ECR 4199, 22 October 1987  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Foto-Frost v Hauptzollamt Lübeck-Ost (Case C-314/85), EU:C:1987:452, [1987] ECR 4199, 22 October 1987. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Cartesio (Case C-210/06), EU:C:2008:723, [2008] ECR I-9641, 16 December 2008  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Cartesio (Case C-210/06), EU:C:2008:723, [2008] ECR I-9641, 16 December 2008. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’aMeara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Banco de Santander (Case C‑274/14), EU:C:2020:17, 21 January 2020  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Banco de Santander (Case C 274/14), EU:C:2020:17, 21 January 2020. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.