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Chapter

This chapter discusses how to use legislation. It first looks at the ‘anatomy’ of an Act of Parliament and describes each of its composite parts. It then considers the various means by which the courts can interpret the wording of statutory provisions, including a discussion of the impact of the European Communities Act 1972 and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

This chapter discusses how to use legislation. It first looks at the ‘anatomy’ of an Act of Parliament and describes each of its composite parts. It then considers the various means by which the courts can interpret the wording of statutory provisions, including a discussion of the impact of the European Communities Act 1972 and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

This chapter looks at identifying whose acts are the acts of the company for the purposes of determining the rights and liabilities of the company, given that the company is an artificial legal entity. There are several distinct rules of attribution which may assist in this context. The chapter examines corporate liability in contract, corporate liability in tort, and criminal liability of the company. The chapter addresses the debate between the traditional approach to attribution, relying on directing mind and will theory, (especially in criminal matters) and the more purposive approach being adopted in civil matters. Attribution in the case of the wrongdoing director is considered as well as the application of an illegality defence.

Chapter

This chapter explains the significance of statutory interpretation and how problems of interpretation arise. The chapter considers in detail the courts’ approach to interpretation, and traditional rules such as the literal rule, the golden rule, and the mischief rule are all analysed with examples from the case law. In modern times the courts employ a more purposive approach to interpretation, and there is coverage of how this approach works in practice. In particular, the chapter outlines a range of intrinsic and extrinsic aids to interpretation that the courts can rely on in interpreting an Act of Parliament. Among others, these aids include the long title, cross-headings, marginal or side notes, dictionaries, pre-parliamentary materials, statutes on the same subject matter, and, most notably, Hansard. The chapter concludes with an overview of the rules of language, namely ejusdem generis, noscitur a sociis, and expressio unius est exclusio alterius.