1-7 of 7 Results

  • Keyword: public undertakings x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

11. Enterprise Act 2002: market studies and market investigations  

This chapter describes the UK system of market studies and market investigation references. It begins by describing the CMA’s ‘general function’ of gathering information about markets, followed by an explanation of what is meant by a ‘super-complaint’. It examines the purpose, procedure and outcomes of market studies, including possible outcomes. Market studies sometimes lead to market investigation references, although there are several other possible outcomes of a market study. The chapter describes the making and determination of analyses and the market investigation provisions under Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002. Having briefly considered public interest cases, enforcement and other supplementary matters, the chapter discusses how the market investigation provisions have been working in practice. The final section of the chapter briefly refers to the enforcement and review of undertakings and orders still in force under the monopoly provisions in the former Fair Trading Act 1973.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

8. Competition, the State, and Public Undertakings: Article 106 TFEU  

This chapter examines how competition law applies to the actions of the State when it intervenes in the market through undertakings which it controls or owns or which it places in a privileged position. The discussion includes the principle of Union loyalty in Article 4(3) TEU; Article 106(1); Article 106(2); and the Commission’s supervisory and policing powers in Article 106(3). Article 106(1) is a prohibition addressed to Member States against enacting or maintaining in force any measure in relation to public undertakings or undertakings to which they have granted special or exclusive rights which are contrary to the Treaty rules. The chapter discusses what is meant by ‘public undertakings’ and ‘special or exclusive rights’ and examines in the light of the case law what measures are forbidden by Article 106(1), including those involving the cumulation of rights, the extension of a dominant position from one market to another, and the creation of situations of inequality of opportunity. Article 106(2) gives a limited derogation from Article 106(2) to undertakings entrusted with the operation of services of general economic interest (SGEIs). The chapter discusses the concept of ‘services of general economic interest’ and examines the cases in which the derogation has been applied or not applied, including the application of Article 106(2) to compensation for the provision of SGEIs which constitutes State aid. The chapter also considers Article 106(3) and the question of the direct effect of Article 106(1) and (2).

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

8. Competition and the State: Article 106 TFEU  

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

This chapter examines how competition law applies to the actions of the State when it intervenes in the market through undertakings which it controls or owns or which it places in a privileged position. The discussion includes the principle of Union loyalty in Article 4(3) TEU; Article 106(1); Article 106(2); and the Commission’s supervisory and policing powers in Article 106(3). Article 106(1) is a prohibition addressed to Member States against enacting or maintaining in force any measure in relation to public undertakings or undertakings to which they have granted special or exclusive rights which are contrary to the Treaty rules. The chapter discusses what is meant by ‘public undertakings’ and ‘special or exclusive rights’ and examines in the light of the case law what measures are forbidden by Article 106(1), including those involving the cumulation of rights, the extension of a dominant position from one market to another, and the creation of situations of inequality of opportunity. Article 106(2) gives a limited derogation from Article 106(2) to undertakings entrusted with the operation of services of general economic interest (SGEIs). The chapter discusses the concept of ‘services of general economic interest’ and examines the cases in which the derogation has been applied or not applied, including the application of Article 106(2) to compensation for the provision of SGEIs which constitutes State aid. The chapter also considers Article 106(3) and the question of the direct effect of Article 106(1) and (2).

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

6. The obligations of Member States under the EU competition rules  

This chapter examines the obligations of Member States in relation to EU competition law. Specifically, it considers the obligations that Article 4(3) TEU and Articles 37 and 106 TFEU place upon Member States. Article 4(3) requires all Member States to take all appropriate measures to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties, and to avoid any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the EU’s objectives. Article 106 particularly obligates Member States to refrain from enacting or maintaining measures contrary to the rules provided in Article 18 and Articles 101 to 109 of the TFEU. Article 37 is concerned with the procurement of goods.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

11. Enterprise Act 2002: market studies and market investigations  

This chapter describes the UK system of market studies and market investigation references. It begins by describing the CMA’s ‘general function’ of gathering information about markets, followed by an explanation of what is meant by a ‘super-complaint’. It then examines the purpose, procedure and outcomes of market studies, including the various outcomes that are possible. Market studies sometimes lead to market investigation references, though, as explained later, there are several other possible outcomes of a market study. The chapter describes the making and determination of analyses the market investigation provisions references under Part 4 in of the Enterprise Act 2002. Having briefly considered public interest cases, enforcement and other supplementary matters, the chapter discusses how the market investigation provisions have been working work in practice. The final section of the chapter briefly refers to the enforcement and review of undertakings and orders still in force under the monopoly provisions in the former Fair Trading Act 1973.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

6. The obligations of Member States under the EU competition rules  

This chapter examines the obligations of Member States in relation to EU competition law. Specifically, it considers the obligations that Article 4(3) TEU and Articles 37 and 106 TFEU place upon Member States. Article 4(3) requires all Member States to take all appropriate measures to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties, and to avoid any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the EUs objectives. Article 106 particularly obligates Member States to refrain from enacting or maintaining measures, contrary to the rules provided in Article 18 and Articles 101 to 109 of the TFEU. Article 37 is concerned with state monopolies of a commercial character.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

22. Mergers (3): UK  

This chapter discusses UK law on the control of mergers. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the domestic system of merger control. Section 3 explains the procedure of the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) when determining whether a merger should be referred for an in-depth ‘Phase 2’ investigation and when deciding to accept ‘undertakings in lieu’ of a reference. Section 4 describes how Phase 2 investigations are conducted and Section 5 discusses the ‘substantially lessening competition’ (‘SLC’) test. Section 6 explains the enforcement powers in the Enterprise Act 2002, including the remedies that the CMA can impose in merger cases. The subsequent sections discuss various supplementary matters, such as powers of investigation and enforcement. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the merger control provisions work in practice and a brief account of the provisions on public interest cases, other special cases and mergers in the water industry. The withdrawal by the UK from the EU means that many mergers that were subject to a ‘one-stop shop’ under EU law are now subject to investigation in the UK as well.