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Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

25. State surveillance and data retention  

This chapter examines the purpose and impacts of state surveillance in the digital environment. It considers the effects of the revelations brought to light by Edward Snowden and outlines the current legal framework for the interception of communications in the UK. The programmes of state surveillance, including by the NSA, GCHQ, and Prism are outlined. The retention and use of personal digital data is also discussed and its relation to the Investigatory Powers Act 2016 examined in detail. The chapter discusses the challenges to data interception in Liberty & Privacy International v GCHQ, Centrum För Rättvisa v Sweden, and Big Brother Watch v UK and against data retention in Tele2 Sverige.

Chapter

Cover The Politics of the Police

5. The police role, function and effects  

Benjamin Bowling, Robert Reiner, and James Sheptycki

This chapter explores some of the political myths about police and policing by reviewing the research evidence on police practice. It considers the police role in theory and practice by focusing on three questions: what is the police role? what do the police actually do? and how well do they do it? It explores the original historical purpose of the police, the governmental authority on which it is based, the role of public opinion, why people call the police, the role and effectiveness of the police in crime control, and in broader social functions. The chapter concludes that the core function of the police is best analysed not in terms of any of their social functions but rather the special character of the means the police can bring to bear. Underlying the diversity of situations to which the police are called is the core capacity to use legitimate coercive force.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

25. State surveillance and data retention  

This chapter examines the purpose and impacts of state surveillance in the digital environment. It considers the effects of the revelations brought to light by Edward Snowden and outlines the current legal framework for the interception of communications in the UK. The programmes of state surveillance, including by the NSA, GCHQ, and Prism are outlined. The retention and use of personal digital data is also discussed and its relation to the Investigatory Powers Act 2016 examined in detail. The chapter discusses the challenges to data interception in Liberty and Privacy International v GCHQ and against data retention in Tele2 Sverige.