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Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; make your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers the nature and enforcement of human rights, including their values and inherent restrictions and their protection at both domestic and international levels.

Chapter

This chapter provides a brief summary of the discussions on copyright. It covers the roots of copyright; the various types of work that attract copyright protection; and the duration of copyright protection.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers the nature and enforcement of human rights, including their values and inherent restrictions and their protection at both domestic and international levels.

Chapter

This chapter first describes the rationale for the establishment of supervisory agencies for data protection in EU States. This marks a significant divergence in approach from other countries such as the United States and continues to constitute a barrier to harmonisation in the data protection field. Specific attention is paid to the status and role of the United Kingdom’s Information Commissioner and the investigative and enforcement powers conferred on the Commissioner. The evolving nature of the requirements of registration of data controllers is considered as is the role of the Register of Data Controllers. Attention is given also to the appeal mechanisms established under the Act and to the role of the First Tier Tribunal.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the protection of privacy, personality, and publicity interests. It considers: the law of privacy and the extent to which individuals can control the use or disclosure of their personal and private information; character and personality merchandising and the ways in which the law of registered and unregistered trade marks protects these interests; and the controversial question of whether individuals can and should be able to prevent the commercial exploitation of their personality and image through a separate publicity right.

Chapter

16. Children and Local Authorities:  

Investigation of Child Abuse

N V Lowe and G Douglas

This chapter focuses on the local authorities' investigative powers and duties. It covers general duty of investigation under Section 47 of the Children Act 1989; co-operating with other agencies to discharge investigative duties; emergency protection orders; child assessment orders; and police protection.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the protection of privacy, personality, and publicity interests. It considers: the law of privacy and the extent to which individuals can control the use or disclosure of their personal and private information; character and personality merchandising and the ways in which the law of registered and unregistered trade marks protects these interests; and the controversial question of whether individuals can and should be able to prevent the commercial exploitation of their personality and image through a separate publicity right.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter reviews the loan contract and the controls that the law has imposed to protect the borrower. The level of protection differs according to the nature of the borrower and the type of security transaction. Market regulation of the residential mortgage market has increased protection for domestic borrowers. Vitiating factors, particularly undue influence, have impacted upon the creation of collateral mortgages of the family home to secure commercial borrowing. Equitable protection has been provided by controls against penalties and oppressive and unconscionable terms, as well as by protection of the borrower’s equity of redemption. Statutory consumer protection now offers more effective protection to domestic borrowers. The common law, equitable, and statutory control mechanisms are then described and applied to demonstrate the protection they afford against particular mortgage terms, for instance to control rates of interest and other costs associated with borrowing.

Chapter

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees the right to life. Topics that are covered include the obligation to protect the right to life by law; the obligation to take preventive action; the procedural obligation to investigate; the protection of the unborn child; and the prohibition of the taking of life by the use of force. The limitation on sentences of capital punishment in Article 2(1) has been interpreted by the Court as prohibiting them entirely. Article 2 prohibits deportation or extradition to face the risk of the loss of life abroad.

Chapter

Ben McFarlane, Nicholas Hopkins, and Sarah Nield

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter reviews the loan contract and the controls that the law has imposed to protect the borrower. The level of protection differs according to the nature of the borrower and the type of security transaction. Market regulation of the residential mortgage market has increased protection for domestic borrowers. Vitiating factors, particularly undue influence, have impacted upon the creation of collateral mortgages of the family home to secure commercial borrowing. Equitable protection has been provided by controls against penalties, and oppressive and unconscionable terms, as well as by protection of the borrower’s equity of redemption. Statutory consumer protection now offers more effective protection to domestic borrowers. The common law, equitable, and statutory control mechanisms are then described and applied to demonstrate the protection they afford against particular mortgage term, for instance to control rates of interest and other costs associated with borrowing.

Chapter

Private nuisance is defined as any substantial and unreasonable interference with the claimant’s land, or with his rights to peaceful enjoyment of that land and any right that exists in connection with it. It need not result from ‘direct’ or ‘intentional’ interference; it is sufficient that the defendant have ‘adopted or continued’ a state of affairs that constitutes an unreasonable interference. This chapter discusses the basis of liability in private nuisance; the concept of unreasonable interference and the difference between this concept and the notion of ‘reasonableness’ in negligence; who can sue and who can be sued; defences; and remedies. It also discusses, in outline, public nuisance; the relationship between nuisance and other forms of liability; and nuisance and protection of the environment.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. The chapter discusses the law on product liability. It covers key debates, sample questions, diagram answer plan, tips for getting extra marks, and online resources. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: the general principles of negligence; the meaning of strict liability; and the Consumer Protection Act 1987 and its relationship with the common law regarding consumer protection.

Book

Edited by Daniel Moeckli, Sangeeta Shah, Sandesh Sivakumaran, and David Harris

Written by leading experts in the field, International Human Rights Law explores the essentials of international human rights law, from foundational issues to substantive rights and systems of protection. It also addresses contemporary challenges, such as terrorism and poverty, ensuring students are aware of the current and future importance of these issues. A variety of perspectives bring this multifaceted and sometimes contentious subject to life, making the book the ideal companion for students and practitioners of human rights. Breadth and depth of coverage provide a thorough and complete guide for students of international human rights law. Each chapter is written by an expert in their respective field. The book includes useful features such as chapter summaries, charts, and suggestions for further reading. New to this third edition are chapters on children’s rights and the regional protection of human rights.

Book

Edited by Daniel Moeckli, Sangeeta Shah, Sandesh Sivakumaran, and David Harris

Written by leading experts in the field, International Human Rights Law explores the essentials of international human rights law, from foundational issues to substantive rights and systems of protection. It also addresses contemporary challenges, such as climate change and pandemics, ensuring students are aware of the current and future importance of these issues. A variety of perspectives bring this multifaceted and sometimes contentious subject to life, making the book the ideal companion for students and practitioners of human rights. Breadth and depth of coverage provide a thorough and complete guide for students of international human rights law. Each chapter is written by an expert in their respective field. The book includes useful features such as chapter summaries, suggestions for further reading, and questions for reflection to stimulate further thinking on the issues considered. New to this fourth edition are chapters on rights and obligations, climate change, and pandemics.

Chapter

Family lawyers may be consulted by those who are being harassed or stalked by someone who is not an associated person. This chapter examines the law on harassment and the remedies available to clients not protected by the Family Law Act 1996. It explains the relevance of this area in relation to family law and details the Protection from Harassment Act 1997. This was enacted to assist those suffering harassment through stalking, antisocial behaviour, or racial harassment. Criminal liability for harassment, civil remedy for harassment, and restraining orders are also discussed, as well as how these all relate in family practice.

Chapter

The notion that data controllers should comply with a set of general data protection principles has been a feature of data protection statutes from the earliest days. As well as imposing obligations on controllers, the principles also confer rights – most notably relating to subject access on data subjects. This chapter will consider the scope and extent of the principles paying particular attention to the requirement that personal data be processed fairly and lawfully. A topic of more recent interest relates to the length of time for which data may be held and made available to third parties. Often referred to as involving the “right to be forgotten”, this is especially relevant to the operation of search engines which make it easy for users to find news stories what would have passed into obscurity in previous eras. The chapter considers also at the operation of the principle requiring users to adopt appropriate security measures against unauthorized access, a topic which is of particular relevance given recent and well publicised large-scale cyber-attacks.

Chapter

A number of concepts are critical to an understanding of the topic. Data protection legislation has historically applied where personal data concerning an identifiable individual is processed by a data controller using automated equipment. Developments in technology make it increasingly difficult to apply these concepts. Data that a decade ago would have been anonymous can now readily be linked to an individual. The emergence of cloud computing technology also creates legal complications in determining where processing takes place and which legal system will govern conduct. This chapter will focus on definitional issues in order to provide a basis for more detailed discussion of the application of data protection legislation in the following chapters.

Chapter

This chapter considers two forms of design right available in the United Kingdom: registered and unregistered design rights. The former is the older concept and was initially applicable to designs intended to be imprinted on linen; the system was extended to other forms of product by the Copyright and Design Act of 1839. This offered protection for ‘the ornamentation and for the shape and configuration of any article of manufacture’. The notion of unregistered design right was introduced to the United Kingdom in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Design rights in tablet computers are also discussed.

Chapter

Family lawyers may be consulted by those who are being harassed or stalked by someone who is not an associated person. This chapter examines the law on harassment and the remedies available to clients not protected by the Family Law Act 1996. It explains the relevance of this area in relation to family law and details the Protection from Harassment Act 1997. This was enacted to assist those suffering harassment through stalking, antisocial behaviour, or racial harassment. Criminal liability for harassment, civil remedy for harassment, and restraining orders are also discussed, as well as how these all relate in family practice.

Chapter

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter discusses database protection and database right under European Parliament and Council Directive on the protection of databases [1996] OJ L 77/20.1, better known as the Database Directive. Long before the advent of digital technology various forms of databases were around in analogue format, such as telephone directories. Digital technology opened up opportunities of scale in this area and made data easy to search. But at the same time it impeded the mere consultation or reading of the data, that are now hidden in a digital format. The real value of a database lies in the comprehensive nature of the information it contains, rather than in the originality of the information itself. Thus, granting an exclusive right in a collection of data or information, without any requirement of originality in relation to the data or information, not only risks interfering with the right of access to information, but also risks interfering with the freedom of competition, since the only workable access to information and data that are themselves in the public domain and freely available will now pass via the rights holder and its database. The database right has the difficult task of striking the right balance between the various interests involved, and the Directive has been accused of putting in place the least balanced and most anti-competitive exclusive right in the EU.