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Chapter

Cover Equity

3. Creating Property  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. For many, Equity's greatest contribution to the law has been its manipulation of traditionally accepted concepts of property. This chapter deals with two strategies that Equity adapted to achieve its radical ends. Equity's first strategy is straightforward. Equity would sometimes regard certain assets as property even when the Common Law did not. This meant that these assets could be traded; they became usable wealth, at least in Equity's eyes. Equity's second strategy for manipulating concepts of property is more complicated. Equity will sometimes say that A ‘owns’ a car (or a company share, or an insurance pay-out) even though the Common Law says that B does. The chapter considers what it means when Equity says that A ‘owns’ property, and why the assertion is so ingenious.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

3. Personal Rights and Property Rights  

This chapter examines property rights in land and personal rights that may allow a party to make a particular use of land. It first considers the distinction between personal rights and property rights before addressing the content question: whether the type of right claimed by a party counts as a property right. To answer that question, a distinction is made between different types of property right. The most important distinction is between legal property rights, on the one hand, and equitable property rights, on the other. The chapter also discusses licences to use land and contrasts their operation and effect with those of property rights in land. It highlights the nature of licences and the controversy over contractual and estoppel licences and concludes with an analysis of the relationship between the law of leases and of licence.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

19. Design rights  

This chapter considers two forms of design right available in the United Kingdom: registered and unregistered design rights. The former is the older concept and was initially applicable to designs intended to be imprinted on linen; the system was extended to other forms of product by the Copyright and Design Act of 1839. This offered protection for ‘the ornamentation and for the shape and configuration of any article of manufacture’. The notion of unregistered design right was introduced to the United Kingdom in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Design rights in tablet computers are also discussed.

Chapter

Cover Thompson's Modern Land Law

1. Introduction to Property and Land  

Land is an important commodity in society that it is both permanent and indestructible, two features which distinguish it from other forms of property. More than one person can have a relationship with the land and share the right to possess it. The right to possess a land is known as ownership right, but it is also common for people to have enforceable rights in other people’s land. This is a third-party right, an example of which is where the owner of a house in a residential area agrees with neighbours that the house will only be used as a residence. This chapter discusses land and property rights, ownership rights, third-party rights, and conveyancing. It also examines the distinction in English law between real property and personal property, the meaning of land, items attached to the land, fixtures and fittings, and incorporeal hereditaments.

Chapter

Cover The Principles of Equity & Trusts

1. An Introduction to Equity  

This chapter introduces the nature of Equity. It provides a legal definition of Equity and offers a background of its history from the Middle Ages. It discusses the contemporary contribution of Equity to English law in a variety of different contexts, particularly in the commercial sphere. The chapter also examines fundamental feature of Equity, which is the division between the recognition and protection of property rights and personal rights. This chapter explains that Equity is not an independent system of law, but it has a distinct identity and function to modify the rigours of the Common Law and to create rights.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

15. The Body as Property  

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter examines the question of the limits set on our right to control our bodies or parts thereof. This debate has centred on the very important issue of our relationship with our body, and the status of the body, which has most recently been shaped by ideas of property. The chapter considers three aspects of that debate: property in material taken from living persons; property in material taken from cadavers; and the granting of intellectual property rights in human material.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

2. The international and European framework  

This chapter considers the international aspects of intellectual property rights. It summarizes the various international conventions, treaties, agreements, and protocols that are in place, all of which are administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization. The chapter also discusses European initiatives in the areas of patents, trade marks, industrial designs, and copyright.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

2. Basic concepts of personal property  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter explores some basic concepts of personal property and personal property law. It first explains the distinction between personal and real property before discussing the nature of personal property and analysing the characteristics and significance of property rights. There is then detailed consideration of ownership and possession of chattels, the acquisition and transfer of legal and equitable ownership, and attornment. This is followed by an account of the acquisition and transfer of legal and equitable ownership in choses in action and intangibles. The chapter concludes with an examination of the remedies for recovery of, and interference with, personal property and remedies available for protection of equitable property, including claims to trust assets and claims for breach of trust.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

20. Article 1, First Protocol: The Right to Property  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 1 of the First Protocol, which guarantees the right to property. Recognition of a pecuniary right in national law or practice will give rise to a ‘possession’ under the Convention. Article 1 imposes upon states positive obligations to protect property, and negative obligations not to interfere with the right to property without justification. It permits two types of interference: (i) deprivation of property where it is in the public interest and in accordance with national law and the general principles of international law; and (ii) control of use of property where it accords with national law and is in the general interest or to secure the payment of taxes or other contributions. Where interference does not fall within one of these categories, it is regulated under the first sentence of Article 1. The standard in all cases requires a ‘fair balance’ be struck between the public interest and the burden of the interference on the person.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

20. Article 1, First Protocol: The right to property  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

Recognition of a pecuniary right in national law or practice will give rise to a ‘possession’ under the Convention. Article 1 imposes upon states positive obligations to protect property, and negative obligations not to interfere with the right to property without justification. It provides for two types of interference: deprivation of property is justified only where it is in the public interest and in accordance with national law and the general principles of international law; control of use of property is justified only where it accords with national law and is in the general interest or to secure the payment of taxes or other contributions. Where interference doesn’t fall into one of these types it is regulated under the first sentence of Article 1. The standard in all cases requires a ‘fair balance’ be struck between the public interest and the burden of the interference on the person.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

14. Cultural Rights  

Julie Ringelheim

This chapter examines the sources of cultural rights in international human rights law, describes their evolution, and highlights the major debates regarding their interpretation. Specifically, it discusses the content and meaning of the right to take part in cultural life, the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications, and the rights of authors and inventors to the protection of their moral and material interests.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

6. Equitable Interests  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter explores the content of equitable interests in land, and considers how such rights differ from personal rights and also from legal estates and interests. Equitable interests in land are capable of being asserted against third parties and so differ from personal rights. The content and acquisition questions are answered differently, depending on whether B claims a legal or an equitable property right. It is also noted that, in general, equitable interests in land, unlike legal estates and interests, do not bind strangers who interfere with the land. Equitable interests also depend on A’s coming under a duty to B. It is therefore suggested that equitable property rights are conceptually different from legal property rights.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

19. Intellectual Property Law  

This chapter considers the major intellectual property rights in the UK and the protection the law gives to these rights. It explains the meaning of copyright, patents, trade marks, and design rights, and considers the types of works that might be protected by them. It explains whether the rights need to be registered and if so the process of registration. It examines the time limits for the protection of the various rights and the remedies available for infringement of them. It also considers the protection the law gives to intellectual property via the tort of passing off. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the possibilities of protecting intellectual property rights outside the UK.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

1. Themes in intellectual property  

This chapter begins with a historical overview of intellectual property rights. It traces the origin and evolution of the patent system, trade marks, and the copyright system, and then turns to the definition and justification of intellectual property, followed by a discussion of the current economic importance of intellectual property.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

32. Remedies in intellectual property litigation  

This chapter discusses the enforcement procedures used in relation to intellectual property rights, the civil remedies that apply, and some issues which arise in relation to the gathering of evidence in intellectual property cases. It identifies three essential elements in the relationship between intellectual property rights and remedies. First, there are the traditional remedies headed by damages that are normally granted at the trial. Second, intellectual property infringement often requires immediate action or a pre-emptive strike. Finally, gathering evidence that is vital for the full trial in an infringement case.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

9. An introduction to copyright  

This chapter first discusses the two roots of copyright. On the one hand, copyright began as an exclusive right to make copies—that is, to reproduce the work of an author. This entrepreneurial side of copyright is linked in with the invention of the printing press, which made it much easier to copy a literary work and, for the first time, permitted the entrepreneur to make multiple identical copies. On the other hand, it became vital to protect the author now that his or her work could be copied much more easily and in much higher numbers. The chapter then outlines the key concepts on which copyright is based.

Chapter

Cover Equity

4. Amplifying Property Rights  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter considers Equity's special techniques for safeguarding property interests. Property's primary protection comes from rules that enable disputing parties to resolve title conflicts and priority disputes. Absolute justice is unlikely; the law must simply decide who has the stronger claim. Property's secondary protection is more controversial. Equity's tracing and claiming strategies allow claimants to assert new proprietary rights in substitute assets. These rights preserve the insolvency priority of the initial proprietary claim or secure entitlements to windfall secondary profits. Neither of these options follows inevitably from the initial assertion of a proprietary right.

Chapter

Cover Borkowski's Textbook on Roman Law

6. Interests in Property  

This chapter deals primarily with the various interests that could be acquired in property, particularly ownership, rights to servitudes, and possession. The Roman law of property is one of the lasting and important legacies of their legal order and has had a profound impact upon modern legal systems across the world. This chapter begins by considering the Roman classification of property. This was the intellectual starting point in the teaching manuals preserved from the classical period of Roman law. The purpose of this exercise in classification was to demonstrate that certain objects fell outside the sphere of private ownership. Apart from issues of classification, this chapter deals primarily with the various interests that could be acquired in property, particularly ownership, limited real rights over the property of others, such as rights to servitudes, and possession. It deals with the legal rules governing these institutions and their interrelationships. In theory, the interests in property may be divided into two broad categories, namely legal interests (ownership and limited real rights) and factual interests (possession). While such a division is useful, it should not be seen as absolute, since possession, though largely a question of fact, could also have certain legal consequences. But first the Roman classification of property must be considered.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

3. Theoretical Accounts of European Intellectual Property  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter offers a full and critical account of the arguments for and against the existence of IP systems in general, and of European IP systems in particular. It begins by considering two general theories in support of the recognition of IP rights as natural rights: the first casting IP as supporting the personal development and autonomy of individual creators (the argument from personhood), and the second casting IP as securing for creators such rights as they deserve by virtue of their acts of intellectual creation (the argument from desert). From natural law accounts of the existence of IP the chapter goes on to examine three other theories grounded in considerations of justice, utility, and pluralism respectively. According to the first, IP is defensible as a means of preventing people either from being enriched unjustly or from harming others by unfairly ‘reaping where they have not sown’. According to the second, IP rights are privileges conferred by the state on specific individuals in the pursuit of certain instrumentalist ends, such as encouraging socially desirable behaviour on the part of their beneficiaries or discouraging socially undesirable behaviour on the part of those whose freedoms they restrict. And according to the third, IP is a regulatory mechanism by which different understandings and traditions of protecting creative and informational subject matter are reconciled in support of legal and social pluralism. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the implications of the theoretical accounts for the duration of copyright and related rights protection and the patentability of biotechnology.

Chapter

Cover The Principles of Land Law

17. Property Law and Human Rights  

This chapter reflects on the interaction between property law and human rights law. Property law and human rights can interact in a number of different ways. The major division distinguishes those cases where human rights arguments are made to ‘bolster’ an existing property law-based argument, and those where the human rights argument is made to attempt to limit the scope of a property right. Thus, one can see the rules of property law and human rights working together, or they can be in conflict. The chapter first identifies the sources of human rights in English law, and then considers which rights are particularly important in relation to property law. It also looks at the mechanics by which key human rights interact with property law, and examines the question of horizontal effect in that context. Finally, the chapter addresses how human rights arguments have had influence in particular areas of land law, focusing on adverse possession, leases, actions for possession against trespassers, and mortgages.