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Chapter

Cover Equity

3. Creating Property  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. For many, Equity's greatest contribution to the law has been its manipulation of traditionally accepted concepts of property. This chapter deals with two strategies that Equity adapted to achieve its radical ends. Equity's first strategy is straightforward. Equity would sometimes regard certain assets as property even when the Common Law did not. This meant that these assets could be traded; they became usable wealth, at least in Equity's eyes. Equity's second strategy for manipulating concepts of property is more complicated. Equity will sometimes say that A ‘owns’ a car (or a company share, or an insurance pay-out) even though the Common Law says that B does. The chapter considers what it means when Equity says that A ‘owns’ property, and why the assertion is so ingenious.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

21. Registered designs  

This chapter discusses the law on registered designs. It covers the requirements for the grant of a registered design; grounds for refusal of registration; ownership of a registered design; rights of the owner and infringement; grounds on which a design may be declared invalid; duration of the registered design right; spare parts; international commercial exploitation; and EU law on registered design.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

26. Future Trends  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter offers an outlook to the future of IP at the European level. The EU and its legal instruments primarily approach IP from a utilitarian free market perspective and that applies also to the way they look at the future. The chapter focuses primarily on that angle when it looks at how the European IP system could and should function in the future and which direction it is taking. In a sense it offers an opportunity for reflection and attempts to enhance the reader's insight in and understanding of IP by wrapping the critical analysis of its technical rules up in a more theoretical analysis.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Land Law

5. Registered Land  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents questions on registered land under the Land Registration Act (LRA) 2002 and deal with all aspects of registrable interests and two categories of interest which are not registrable substantively, which include minor (registrable interests that can be protected by the entry of a notice on the register), and overriding interests (a list of which is contained in Schedule 3, LRA 2002), alongside the mirror principle.

Chapter

Cover Environmental Law

3. Private Law  

This chapter provides an overview of different areas of private law and their relationship to environmental law including property law, tort law, contract law, and private law. The chapter begins by showing how the role of private law in addressing environmental problems is due to environmental law being applied law. Sections 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 give an overview of property law, tort law, contract law, and company law and their relationship to environmental law. This analysis shows that private law has a role in framing our understanding of environmental law and environmental problems, while environmental law and environmental problems also shape understandings of private law, and of property law in particular. The final section concludes by discussing the multi-dimensional nature of the interrelationship between private law, environmental problems, and environmental law in more detail.

Chapter

Cover Clarkson & Hill's Conflict of Laws

9. Property  

Jonathan Hill

This chapter considers the choice of law rules for the transfer of property. The rules are structured round a number of distinctions. First, a distinction has to be drawn between movables and immovables. Immovable property, which comprises land and things attached to or growing on the land, is subject to the control of the authorities where it is situated to a much greater extent than movable property, which can be physically removed from one country to another. As regards movables, a further distinction is drawn between tangibles and intangibles. Secondly, the law distinguishes between cases involving the transfer of property on death and cases where property is transferred inter vivos. Thirdly, transfers which arise as a result of marriage should be distinguished from other types of transfer.

Chapter

Cover Equity

6. Supplementing Civil Wrongs  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter illustrates escalating concerns about the risk of unacceptable disjunctions between Equity and the Common Law. The first section considers the relatively simple matter of Equity supplementing existing Common Law remedies. The next sections consider the more controversial question of Equity and the Common Law embarking on separate paths to deal with the same underlying wrong of negligence. The final sections deal with the intractable problem of how Equity protects Equitable property from abuse by the trustee and interference by other third parties. Each section explores the differences between the Equitable rules and their Common Law counterparts. It is crucial that these differences be soundly justified if they are to remain part of the common law.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to the Law of Trusts

17. Constructive Trusts 2  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter considers situations in which a constructive trust occurs in English law, and the grounds on which it does so. It focuses on constructive trusts that arise on one of two bases: liberal property theory, via its predicates proprietary inertia and nemo dat quod non habet; and a concern to counteract the ‘principal-agent problem’ besetting agency, trusts, and similar otherwise useful devices, and an analogous problem arising between a vendor and a purchaser especially of land. The discussions cover unsatisfactory transfers; receipt of illicitly transferred trust property; permitted acquisitions by fiduciaries; wrongful acquisitions by fiduciaries; unauthorized exchanges and mixtures; and anticipated transfers.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

1. An Introduction to Domestic and International Intellectual Property Law  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter commences the discussion of the European law of IP by introducing the domestic and international IP systems that preceded and continue to exist alongside it. It starts with the ‘what, how, and why’ of IP law in general—what it is, how it came to be, and why it exists—and proceeds to consider European IP law as part of an international network of IP laws that, while being a product of the domestic IP laws of individual European states, nonetheless differs from those laws in three related aspects. First, unlike domestic IP laws, many international laws operate by establishing legal standards for states to implement within their own territories rather than by regulating the behaviour of those states’ citizens. Second, the need for international legal communities to accommodate the diverse values and legal traditions of their member states makes their IP laws and policies less likely to reflect a single model or justificatory theory of IP than those of individual countries. And third, a central aim of international European IP communities is to supplement or substitute domestic laws and policies with European laws and policies in pursuit of European objectives, including some that stand in tension with domestic interests, such as the abolition of territorial restrictions on the operation of IP regimes.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

24. Enforcement  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter looks into preliminary aspect of private international law, focusing on jurisdiction and choice of law. Before enforcement actions can get off the ground we need to know which court will have jurisdiction and which law that court will apply. Jurisdiction is based on the domicile of the defendant as a basic rule, but alternative fora are available. The courts of the place of the harmful event may also have jurisdiction and there are special rules for multiple defendant cases. Validity cases are subject to exclusive jurisdiction rules. In terms of choice of law, the law of the country for which protection is sought takes centre stage when it comes to IP. It is the law applicable to the IP right as such and it also applies to infringement.

Chapter

Cover Pearce & Stevens' Trusts and Equitable Obligations

15. Family homes: Postscript  

In this chapter, there is a recognition that the intervention of equity in the family home represents a pragmatic response to a real problem, but it is not a perfect solution. It considers some of a number of grounds of critique of the current approach, including attempts at legislative reform to provide a solution. It can be criticized on a number of grounds, quite apart from the issue as to whether it constitutes a usurpation of a legislative function. There is also a consideration of whether the approach we have now has moved away from traditional assertion of property principles to a sense of redistributive justice more familiar to family lawyers.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

6. Infringement and revocation  

This chapter discusses the law on patent infringement and revocation. The grounds on which a patent may be revoked are established by s. 72 of the UK Patents Act 1977. On the issue of infringement, s. 60 of the 1977 Act is the key provision and unusually makes separate, although not dissimilar, provisions for patents that are for products and those that are for processes. Interpretation of claims is a key aspect of any infringement case.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

9. An introduction to copyright  

This chapter first discusses the two roots of copyright. On the one hand, copyright began as an exclusive right to make copies—that is, to reproduce the work of an author. This entrepreneurial side of copyright is linked in with the invention of the printing press, which made it much easier to copy a literary work and, for the first time, permitted the entrepreneur to make multiple identical copies. On the other hand, it became vital to protect the author now that his or her work could be copied much more easily and in much higher numbers. The chapter then outlines the key concepts on which copyright is based.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to the Law of Trusts

1. The Nature of Trusts  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter first defines the trust concept. This is followed by discussions of the significance of the various aspects of this ‘definition’ and the ways in which it is contentious. Trust is defined as: a situation in which property is vested in someone (a trustee), who is under legally recognized obligations, at least some of which are of a proprietary kind, to handle it in a certain way, and to the exclusion of any personal interest. These obligations may arise either by conscious creation by the previous owner of the property (the settlor), or because some other legally significant circumstances are present. The chapter then explains the ways in which trusts can come about; the roles of the settlor, beneficiary, and trustee; the objectives of the trust; the need for obligations to be attached to property; trustees as fiduciaries; whether trust is an equitable concept; and the requirement that the trustee should know that a trust is being created.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

23. Trade Secrets  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter deals with the legal protection of trade secrets. Traditionally, trade secret protection was left to the national laws of Member States. These national regimes are rooted firmly in existing legal rules in the areas of unfair competition, tort, or breach of confidence. And there is also the “Directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure”. The Directive seeks to impose on Member States a minimal form of harmonization and uniformity. It does not impose a (Community) right in relation to a trade secret, but it works with a common basic definition of a trade secret, the principle that there needs to be redress for the unlawful acquisition, use, or disclosure of a trade secret, and a catalogue of measures and remedies.

Chapter

Cover The Principles of Equity & Trusts

1. An Introduction to Equity  

This chapter introduces the nature of Equity. It provides a legal definition of Equity and offers a background of its history from the Middle Ages. It discusses the contemporary contribution of Equity to English law in a variety of different contexts, particularly in the commercial sphere. The chapter also examines fundamental feature of Equity, which is the division between the recognition and protection of property rights and personal rights. This chapter explains that Equity is not an independent system of law, but it has a distinct identity and function to modify the rigours of the Common Law and to create rights.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

2. The international and European framework  

This chapter considers the international aspects of intellectual property rights. It summarizes the various international conventions, treaties, agreements, and protocols that are in place, all of which are administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization. The chapter also discusses European initiatives in the areas of patents, trade marks, industrial designs, and copyright.

Chapter

Cover The Principles of Land Law

17. Property Law and Human Rights  

This chapter reflects on the interaction between property law and human rights law. Property law and human rights can interact in a number of different ways. The major division distinguishes those cases where human rights arguments are made to ‘bolster’ an existing property law-based argument, and those where the human rights argument is made to attempt to limit the scope of a property right. Thus, one can see the rules of property law and human rights working together, or they can be in conflict. The chapter first identifies the sources of human rights in English law, and then considers which rights are particularly important in relation to property law. It also looks at the mechanics by which key human rights interact with property law, and examines the question of horizontal effect in that context. Finally, the chapter addresses how human rights arguments have had influence in particular areas of land law, focusing on adverse possession, leases, actions for possession against trespassers, and mortgages.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

1. Introduction  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This introductory chapter first considers the nature and function of contract. It then discusses the contractual obligations in English law; the content of the contract law as set out in this book, which is concerned with the ‘general principles’ of contract rather than the detailed rules applicable to different types of contracts; the location of contract as part of the law of obligations and its relation to other parts of the law of obligations, tort and restitution of an unjust enrichment, and property law.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

1. Intellectual property law: an introduction  

This chapter provides an accessible introduction to intellectual property (IP) law. It provides and challenges some definitions of intellectual property law and IP itself. It discusses the development of IP law as a field of study in an increasingly global context and presents a realistic view of the law as it actually operates; the relationships between different levels of IP law—at national, European, European Union, and international levels; the various influences on the formation, justifications for, and development of IP law including between IP law and other legal fields; and the tensions that arise from different perspectives when the law seeks to protect IP.