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Chapter

This chapter sets out the legal position in regard to the contracting powers of the Crown and other government bodies. An outline is provided of the powers of government and public authorities to enter into contracts and there is an explanation of the significance of procurement, particularly in the light of European directives which impact widely on government contracting. There is also a discussion of the law of restitution and the fettering of statutory discretion by contract.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter explores the law relating to accessorial liability or parties to crime. It discusses liability for aiding, abetting, counselling, or procuring the commission of an offence under the Accessories and Abettors Act 1861, the scope of accessorial liability after the decision in R v Jogee [2016] UKSC 8, the effect of withdrawing participation, liability for participation after the offence, protection of the victim, and recommended reforms to the law.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter explores the law relating to accessorial liability or parties to crime. It discusses liability for aiding, abetting, counselling, or procuring the commission of an offence under the Accessories and Abettors Act 1861, the scope of accessorial liability after the decision in R v Jogee [2016] UKSC 8, the effect of withdrawing participation, liability for participation after the offence, protection of the victim, and recommended reforms to the law.

Chapter

Michael J. Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the meaning of accomplices, vicarious liability, joint enterprise liability, and corporate liability. All the parties to a crime are accomplices. The person who perpetrates the crime is referred to as the principal. Others, not being principals, who participate in the commission of an offence are referred to as accessories or secondary parties and will be liable to conviction if it is proved that they aided, abetted, counselled, or procured the commission of the crime by the principal. Vicarious liability is a form of strict liability arising from the master–servant relationship, without reference to any fault of the employer. A corporation is a legal person and therefore may be criminally liable even though it has no physical existence and cannot act or think except through its directors or servants.

Chapter

Michael J. Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and contextual, Criminal Law provides a succinct overview of the key areas on the law curriculum balanced with thought-provoking contextual discussion. This chapter discusses the meaning of accomplices, vicarious liability, joint enterprise liability, and corporate liability. All the parties to a crime are accomplices. The person who perpetrates the crime is the principal. Others, not being principals, who participate in the commission of an offence are referred to as accessories or secondary parties and will be liable to conviction if it is proved that they aided, abetted, counselled, or procured the commission of the crime by the principal. Vicarious liability is a form of strict liability arising from the employer–employee relationship, without reference to any fault of the employer. A corporation is a legal person and therefore may be criminally liable, even though it has no physical existence and cannot act or think except through its directors or employees.