1-20 of 36 Results

  • Keyword: procedural law x
Clear all

Book

Nigel Foster

Foster on EU Law offers an account of the institutions and procedures of the EU legal system as well as focused analysis of key substantive areas, including free movement of goods; free movement of persons; citizenship; and competition law, including state aids. This clear structure provides a solid foundation in the mechanisms and applications of EU law. The book considers the supremacy of EU law in relation to ordinary domestic law, member state constitutional law, and international law, including UN Resolutions. It includes a consideration of EU law and Germany and France, as well as a briefer look at a number of other member states and contains discussion of human rights, in particular the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the moves of the EU to accede to the European Convention on Human Rights. The material on remedies in Chapter 6 has been rearranged to aid presentation and understanding. It follows the further developments of Art 263 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and has rearranged the material on the free movement of persons to take account of the judgments of the Court of Justice. The relationship between the UK and the EU and Brexit are dealt with in a new, dedicated chapter.

Chapter

Judicial review is a procedure whereby the courts determine the lawfulness of the exercise of executive power. It is concerned with the legality of the decision-making process as opposed to the merits of the actual decision. Thus it is supervisory rather than appellate. Emphasis is also placed on the fact that the jurisdiction exists to control the exercise of power by public bodies. This chapter discusses the supervisory jurisdiction of the courts, procedural reform, the rule in O’Reilly v Mackman, the public law/private law distinction, collateral challenge, and exclusion of judicial review. The procedure for making a claim for judicial review under the Civil Procedural Rules (CPR) 54 is outlined.

Chapter

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the judicial review procedure, with particular emphasis on two issues: first, what judicial review procedure which claimants seeking a prerogative remedy are required to use; second, the extent to which a claimant seeking to raise a public law matter may avoid having to use the judicial review procedure by issuing a claim for an injunction or declaration. After providing a background on the origins of today's judicial review procedure, the chapter discusses the nature of the judicial review procedure and the impact of human rights claims on judicial review procedure. It also considers when the judicial review procedure must be used, focusing on procedural exclusivity, waiver of exclusivity, defensive use of public law arguments, and the connection between private law rights and public law.

Chapter

This chapter examines the procedural grounds of judicial review. It discusses how the courts have used the procedural fairness doctrine by reviewing a number of leading cases to identify the values that appear to be shaping the content of the law. The analysis focuses primarily on case law drawn from the ‘modern’ (ie post-1960) era, but several seminal decisions from earlier periods are also considered. The concept of procedural fairness has generated a vast body of case law in the modern era and will continue to do so in future. But the law on this point, even when seen in conjunction with the law relating to the traditional substantive grounds on which government action can be held unlawful, offers only a partial picture of the way in which administrative law fits into the broader constitutional principles of the rule of law and the sovereignty of Parliament.

Chapter

This chapter examines the procedural grounds of judicial review. It discusses how the courts have used the procedural fairness doctrine by reviewing a number of leading cases to identify the values that appear to be shaping the content of the law. The analysis focuses on case law drawn from the ‘modern’ (ie post-1960) era, but several seminal decisions from earlier periods are also considered. The concept of procedural fairness has generated a vast body of case law in the modern era and will continue to do so in future. But the law on this point, even when seen in conjunction with the law relating to the traditional substantive grounds on which government action can be held unlawful, offers only a partial picture of the way in which administrative law fits into the broader constitutional principles of the rule of law and the sovereignty of Parliament.

Chapter

Judicial review is a procedure whereby the courts determine the lawfulness of the exercise of executive power. It is concerned with the legality of the decision-making process as opposed to the merits of the actual decision. Thus it is supervisory rather than appellate. Emphasis is also placed on the fact that the jurisdiction exists to control the exercise of power by public bodies. This chapter discusses the supervisory jurisdiction of the courts, procedural reform, the rule in O’Reilly v Mackman, the public law/private law distinction, collateral challenge, and exclusion of judicial review. The procedure for making a claim for judicial review under the Civil Procedural Rules (CPR) Pt 54 is outlined, and the prospect of further reform is noted.

Chapter

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the concept of Equity and defines it as the body of law that has been made and developed by judges in the Chancery courts to modify the rigid application of the common law. It is grounded on rules, principles, and doctrines that are strictly interpreted, but their application and the remedies awarded can be tempered by the exercise of judicial discretion to ensure a just and fair result. It plays an important role in many contemporary aspects of the law, including commercial and corporate law. A distinction between property rights and personal rights lie at the heart of Equity, and there exists no substantive fusion between Common Law and Equity as bodies of rules — even if their administration has been conjoined into a single procedural system. The chapter also discusses a variety of equitable maxims that are useful generalizations of complex law.

Chapter

6. Remedies in EU Law:  

Direct Effects, Indirect Effects, State Liability, and Art 267 TFEU

This chapter brings together a number of related issues indirectly linked to the preliminary ruling procedure under Article 267 TFEU—the vehicle by which the leading principles and remedies in EU law were developed by the Court of Justice; in particular, the means by which EU law could be enforced by individuals via the national courts, rather than by the Commission or other institutions, or member states in direct actions before the CJEU. The discussions cover Article 267 TFEU; direct applicability and direct effects; state liability; and national procedural law and the system of remedies.

Chapter

This chapter examines the procedural law of the European Union (EU), focusing on Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). It explains that Article 267 is the reference procedure by which courts in member states can endorse questions concerning EU law to the Court of Justice (CJEU). Under this Article, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has the jurisdiction to provide preliminary rulings on the validity and interpretation of acts of the institutions, bodies, offices, or agencies of the Union and on the interpretation of the Treaties. This ensures legal unity.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU law on mergers, first examining the policy reasons underlying merger control. It then considers the jurisdictional, procedural, and substantive aspects to EU merger policy. Jurisdictional issues cover the types of concentration that are subject to the Merger Regulation and the inter-relationship between merger control at EU and national levels. Procedural issues cover matters such as the way in which notice of a proposed merger must be given and the investigative powers possessed by the Commission. Substantive issues of merger policy include matters such as the test for determining whether a merger or concentration should be allowed and the extent to which efficiencies produced by the concentration should be taken into account. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning EU competition law and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU law on mergers, first examining the policy reasons underlying merger control. It then considers the jurisdictional, procedural, and substantive aspects to EU merger policy. Jurisdictional issues cover the types of concentration that are subject to the Merger Regulation and the inter-relationship between merger control at EU and national levels. Procedural issues cover matters such as the way in which notice of a proposed merger must be given and the investigative powers possessed by the Commission. Substantive issues of merger policy include matters such as the test for determining whether a merger or concentration should be allowed and the extent to which efficiencies produced by the concentration should be taken into account. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning EU competition law and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter deals with questions on the range of actions or types of procedure provided for under the TFEU (ex-European Community (EC) Treaty). These are the actions under Arts 258–60, 263, 265, 267, 268, 277, and 340 TFEU. The questions range from a straightforward consideration on the procedure of each action to the difficulties for applicants in these actions: the setting of difficult problem questions on the procedural aspects to questions requiring a consideration of more than one action. The chapter concludes with a general question on the overall range and effectiveness of remedies for individuals in the EU legal order. A mixture of essay and problem-type questions is provided.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, House of Lords. This case considered whether the process by which a Chief Constable was sacked amounted to procedural unfairness and breached the rules of natural justice. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the notion of procedural fairness as a technical area of administrative law. It begins with an overview of D. J. Galligan's attempt to provide what he calls ‘a general theory of fair treatment’ by addressing what it is that legal rules requiring procedural fairness might seek to achieve. It then considers the view that procedural fairness is valuable in both instrumental and non-instrumental terms before discussing two interlocking questions that must be confronted if the notion of procedural fairness is to be understood: when decision-makers are required to act fairly and what ‘acting fairly’ actually means. In particular, it explains the content of the duty to act fairly. Finally, it describes consultation as an element of procedural fairness. A number of relevant cases are cited throughout the chapter, including Cooper v. The Board of Works for Wandsworth District (1863).

Chapter

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, House of Lords. This case considered whether the process by which a Chief Constable was sacked amounted to procedural unfairness and breached the rules of natural justice. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, House of Lords. This case considered whether the process by which a Chief Constable was sacked amounted to procedural unfairness and breached the rules of natural justice. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

11. Judicial Powers II  

(Decentralized) National Procedures

This chapter discusses the ‘decentralized’ powers of the European Court of Justice. It looks at two specific constitutional principles that the Court has derived from the general duty of sincere cooperation: the principle of equivalence and the principle of effectiveness. Both principles have led to a significant judicial harmonization of national procedural laws. The chapter then turns to a third incursion into the procedural autonomy of national courts: the liability principle. While the previous two principles relied on the existence of national remedies for the enforcement of European law, this principle establishes a European remedy for proceedings in national courts. An individual can here, under certain conditions, claim compensatory damages resulting from a breach of European law. Importantly, the remedial competence of national courts is confined to national wrongs. They cannot give judgments on ‘European’ wrongs, as jurisdiction over the latter is—like the power to annul Union law—an exclusive power of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Finally, the chapter explores what happens in areas in which the Union has harmonized the remedial or jurisdictional competences of national courts.

Chapter

11. Judicial Powers II  

(Decentralized) National Procedures

This chapter discusses the ‘decentralized’ powers of the European Court of Justice. It looks at two specific constitutional principles that the Court has derived from the general duty of sincere cooperation: the principle of equivalence and the principle of effectiveness. Both principles have led to a significant judicial harmonization of national procedural laws. The chapter then turns to a third incursion into the procedural autonomy of national courts: the liability principle. While the previous two principles relied on the existence of national remedies for the enforcement of European law, this principle establishes a European remedy for proceedings in national courts. An individual can here, under certain conditions, claim compensatory damages resulting from a breach of European law. Importantly, the remedial competence of national courts is confined to national wrongs. They cannot give judgments on ‘European’ wrongs, as jurisdiction over the latter is—like the power to annul Union law—an exclusive power of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Finally, the chapter explores what happens in areas in which the Union has harmonized the remedial or jurisdictional competences of national courts.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the sources of procedural law, the general principles relevant to civil procedure established by the overriding objective, the European Convention on Human Rights, and some rules on how the courts approach construing the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR). The CPR and practice directions (PDs) are the procedural rules governing civil proceedings. The most important rule is the ‘overriding objective’ of dealing with claims justly and at proportionate cost. The most important Convention rights in civil litigation are the right to a fair trial, the right to respect for private and family life, and the right to freedom of expression.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the sources of procedural law, the general principles relevant to civil procedure established by the overriding objective, the European Convention on Human Rights, and some rules on how the courts approach construing the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR). The CPR and practice directions (PDs) are the procedural rules governing civil proceedings. The most important rule is the ‘overriding objective’ of dealing with claims justly and at proportionate cost. The most important Convention rights in civil litigation are the right to a fair trial, the right to respect for private and family life, and the right to freedom of expression.