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Chapter

Cover Evidence

9. Legal Professional Privilege  

Chapter 9 focuses on the doctrine of legal professional privilege. Technically, this encompasses two separate privileges: legal advice privilege, which protects communications between client and legal adviser; and litigation privilege, which protects communications between client or legal adviser and a third party, so long as preparation for litigation is the dominant purpose of the communication. Legal advice privilege, unlike litigation privilege, is regarded as ‘absolute’ and incapable of being overridden. The chapter also briefly looks at ‘without prejudice privilege’, aspects of which the House of Lords and Supreme Court have considered in relatively recent years.

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

11. Privilege  

This chapter looks at the rules relating to legal professional privilege and, in outline, the doctrine of the privilege against self-incrimination. Under these provisions potentially relevant evidence may be excluded at trial. The role of legal professional privilege in protecting defendants in criminal trials is outlined and the absolutist stance of the courts discussed. The chapter outlines the various immunities which are embraced under the privilege against self-incrimination. Summarizing some recent case law, the chapter reflects on the extent to which the privilege may now extend to a broader set of circumstances than the earlier authorities suggested. For example, the privilege may not necessarily be unavailable against the use of compelled questions in an administrative enquiry.

Chapter

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence

IX. Privilege  

This chapter concerns privilege. A witness is ‘privileged’ when they may validly claim not to answer a question, or to supply information relevant to the determination of an issue in judicial proceedings. Because the effect is to deprive the tribunal of relevant evidence, powerful arguments are required for such rules. Modern law has reduced their number and scope, although this is arguably balanced by an increase in their status, which has been further enhanced by implementation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). This chapter discusses certain types of privilege: the privilege against self-incrimination, legal professional privilege, privilege for statements made without prejudice as part of an attempt to settle a dispute, and a privilege derived from the former for statements made to a conciliator.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

22. Privilege  

This chapter discusses several well-established principles whereby relevant evidence is excluded because of extrinsic considerations which outweigh the value that the evidence would have at trial. Three types of privilege are considered: (i) the privilege against self-incrimination (including statutory withdrawal of the privilege, compatibility with Art 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the compulsory production of pre-existing documents and materials, and substituted protection); (ii) legal professional privilege, which enables a client to protect the confidentiality of (a) communications between him and his lawyer made for the purpose of obtaining and giving legal advice (known as ‘legal advice privilege’) and (b) communications between him or his lawyer and third parties for the dominant purpose of preparation for pending or contemplated litigation (known as ‘litigation privilege’); and (iii) ‘without prejudice’ privilege, which enables settlement negotiations to be conducted without fear of proposed concessions being used in evidence at trial as admissions.

Chapter

Cover Murphy on Evidence

19. Public interest immunity and privilege II  

Privilege

A privilege is a rule of law that permits a witness to refuse to answer a question, or a party to refuse to produce certain materials. This chapter discusses the privilege against self-incrimination. Legal professional privilege, consisting of legal advice and litigation privilege, is explained along with the exceptions and the importance of the ‘dominant purpose’ rule in litigation privilege and the limitation of litigation privilege to adversarial, and not investigative or inquisitorial, proceedings. Other privileges, in particular the ‘without prejudice’ rule in civil cases, and the protection of sources of information contained in publications under the Contempt of Court Act 1981, s. 10, are also examined.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

8. Consent to Medical Treatment  

A. M. Farrell and E. S. Dove

This chapter explores the nature of consent to medical treatment for adults (primarily those with capacity), as well as its flipside, refusal of medical treatment. We begin by focusing on the function of consent and the consequences for failing to obtain it. We then consider what constitutes informed consent for the purposes of medical treatment, and the nature of information which must be disclosed to a patient to secure this. Finally, we discuss circumstances where medical treatment may proceed even in the absence of consent. As part of this, the chapter traces the history of ‘informed consent’ from the American case of Salgo (1957) through and beyond the foundational UK Supreme Court case of Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board (2015), which sets out legal rules on the disclosure of risks to satisfy the criteria of an informed consent for medical treatment. We discuss how patient autonomy and exercise of choice is now a common theme in relevant case law, and professional guidance increasingly emphasises shared decision making for treatment decisions. Nevertheless, the law still places hurdles in the path of individuals seeking to exercise their autonomy, and vestiges of Bolam (1957) remain, particularly in relation to medical advice concerning the risks associated with treatment.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

12. Defamation  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with the law of defamation. The basic rules of the common law of defamation state that: A is liable for saying anything to C about B which would be apt to make an average citizen think worse of the latter. In principle, B can sue A without having to show that what A said was false, that it caused him any harm, or that A was at any way at fault in saying it. The chapter distinguishes between what is ‘defamatory’ and what is not. It discusses the liability for the act of communication is called ‘publication’. It also considers defences: to apparent allegations of fact, the only defences are truth (called ‘justification’) and privilege; for statements of opinion, which cannot be false but at the most simulated, the defence is ‘fair comment on a matter of public interest’.

Book

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence
Cross & Tapper on Evidence has become firmly established as a classic of legal literature. This thirteenth edition reflects on all recent changes and developments in this fast-moving subject. In particular, it fully examines new case law relevant to evidence of privilege, character, and hearsay. The inclusion of some comparative material provides an excellent basis for the critical appraisal of English law. This book remains the definitive guide to the law of evidence.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Evidence

3. Witnesses: Competence and compellability; Special Measures Directions  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flow charts. This chapter covers witnesses, who are a principal source of evidence, and the rules relating to their attendance. All witnesses with relevant information are assumed to be competent to give evidence and usually compellable to give evidence, as the court may summon them to attend. Interests of the witness are secondary to the need of the court to have all necessary information. Some witnesses who are competent may claim a privilege not to give evidence, including defendants on their own behalf. Other exceptions comprise spouses or civil partners testifying for the prosecution. This is based on the concept that compulsion may lead to marital discord. The chapter also includes a review of Special Measures Directions for vulnerable witnesses.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Evidence

10. Privilege and public policy  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and diagrams and flow charts. This chapter covers evidence excluded for policy or public interest considerations: public interest immunity (PII). A party, witness or non-participant in proceedings may refuse to disclose information, papers or answer questions, even though such material may be highly relevant and reliable. If PII applies, neither party has access to the evidence. For privilege, the areas most likely to occur in Evidence courses are privilege against self-incrimination and legal professional privilege. The former includes the right to silence of the defendant. The privilege against self-incrimination is generally upheld by common law and by implication by Art. 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Legal professional privilege is a common law exclusionary rule principle that applies in civil and criminal proceedings.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Directions

15. Defences to defamation  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Defences to defamation protect freedom of speech in English law. Some of the defences are ‘absolute’ while others are ‘qualified’. Absolute defence means that regardless of how careless the defendant has been in publishing the statement or whether he has been motivated by malice, he is completely protected. Qualified defence applies to a wider range of situations, but fails if the claimant can show that the statement was made ‘maliciously’. This chapter looks at the amendments to the existing defences to defamation contained in the Defamation Act 2013, and the introduction of new defences to protect operators of websites that host user-generated content are also examined.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Public Law

5. Parliament  

The Q&A series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each chapter includes typical questions, diagram problem and essay answer plans, suggested answers, notes of caution, tips on obtaining extra marks, the key debates on each topic, and suggestions on further reading. This chapter presents information relating to Parliament. It looks at all aspects of how both the House of Commons and House of Lords work and how they might be reformed. The questions the chapter looks at deal with issues such as the reform of procedures and operation of the House of Commons; how newly elected MPs can influence government policy; the role of departmental select committees; parliamentary privilege; and House of Lords reform.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

21. Defences and remedies in defamation  

This chapter examines the defences that can be used in defamation cases and the remedies that are available to defendants. The defences are of particular importance in this area in terms of protecting the rights and interests of both the public and the defendant (essentially permitting freedom of expression). Principal defences include consent, the assumption of risk, offer of amends, truth, honest opinion, absolute privilege, and qualified privilege. The available remedies for defamation claims are mainly damages and injunctions. This chapter incorporates a discussion of both the Defamation Act 1996 and the Defamation Act 2013 and analyses relevant court cases.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

15. Defamation  

This chapter focuses on defamation which enables an individual (or, more controversially, a company) to prevent the publication of, or recover damages for, public statements which make, or are likely to make, people think less of them. At its heart is a balance between freedom of speech (protected under the European Convention on Human Rights and the Human Rights Act 1998) and the interests of an individual in the protection of their reputation. The chapter examines the Defamation Act 2013 and explains who can sue for, and be liable in, defamation, when a statement is ‘defamatory’ and innuendo. It also considers the defences of truth, honest opinion, publication in a matter of public interest and privilege. It concludes with a discussion of damages for defamation.

Chapter

Cover Constitutional and Administrative Law

5. Parliament  

This chapter is concerned with the two chambers of Parliament, which, together with the Queen, collectively form Parliament: these are the House of Commons (HC) and the House of Lords (HL). The composition of both Houses is considered in this chapter, and attention is given to the officers of the House of Commons, the life of Parliament, House of Commons sittings, and the committee system. The electoral franchise is discussed and attention is focused on the important issues of electoral reform and the reform of the House of Lords. The chapter concludes by considering what is meant by the term ‘parliamentary privilege’.

Chapter

Cover International Law

8. International Organizations  

Dapo Akande

This chapter examines the legal framework governing international organizations. It begins with an examination of the history, role, and nature of international organizations. It is argued that although the constituent instruments and practices of each organization differ, there are common legal principles which apply to international organizations. The chapter focuses on the identification and exploration of those common legal principles. There is an examination of the manner in which international organizations acquire legal personality in international and domestic law and the consequences of that legal personality. There is also discussion of the manner in which treaties establishing international organizations are interpreted and how this differs from ordinary treaty interpretation. The legal and decision-making competences of international organizations are considered as are the responsibility of international organizations and their privileges and immunities. Finally, the chapter examines the structure and powers of what is the leading international organization—the United Nations (UN).

Chapter

Cover Legal Ethics

6. Confidentiality  

This chapter discusses the principle of confidentiality. It explains the protection of lawyer–client communications and it discusses professional guidance on confidentiality. It is clear that the duty of confidence is not an absolute one and there are circumstances in which it is appropriate, indeed even required, for a lawyer to disclose confidential information. The chapter explores when these exceptions to the general principle of protection of confidence arise. It goes on to examine the rule of legal professional privilege and the circumstances in which lawyers have a duty to disclose. The chapter discusses when a lawyer is permitted to breach confidence. In doing so, it looks at the broader ethical foundation for the duty of confidence.

Chapter

Cover The Politics of the Police

7. Below, beyond, and above the police: pluralization of policing  

Benjamin Bowling, Robert Reiner, and James Sheptycki

The chapter surveys theories concerning the hybrid nature of the plural policing web. It evaluates the claim that a fundamental shift in policing occurred at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Holding police métier as a definitional constant, the chapter examines how policing is enacted from different institutional positions in plural policing. It outlines the history of claims about the rise of plural policing before discussing its relation to law, the military, technology, territory, locality, the rising importance of private ‘high policing’, and the centrality of surveillance. The chapter demonstrates the complex opportunity structure of the plural policing web, the variety of legal and technological tools involved in its operations, and suggests that it poses fundamental problems for the democratic governance of police that have not been resolved. It concludes that there is both continuity and change in the politics of the police and that claims of a fundamental break have been overstated.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

British Railways Board v Pickin [1974] AC 765, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in British Railways Board v Pickin [1974] AC 765, House of Lords. The case concerned the unwillingness of the courts to look behind the process by which statutes were enacted by Parliament. The case note explores the wider implications of this position in the context of debate between orthodox and alternative conceptions of parliamentary sovereignty, and the notion of constitutional statutes. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

British Railways Board v Pickin [1974] AC 765, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in British Railways Board v Pickin [1974] AC 765, House of Lords. The case concerned the unwillingness of the courts to look behind the process by which statutes were enacted by Parliament. The case note explores the wider implications of this position in the context of debate between orthodox and alternative conceptions of parliamentary sovereignty, and the notion of constitutional statutes. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.