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Chapter

This chapter provides an overview of different areas of private law and their relationship to environmental law including property law, tort law, contract law, and private law. The chapter begins by showing how the role of private law in addressing environmental problems is due to environmental law being applied law. Sections 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 give an overview of property law, tort law, contract law, and company law and their relationship to environmental law. This analysis shows that private law has a role in framing our understanding of environmental law and environmental problems, while environmental law and environmental problems also shape understandings of private law, and of property law in particular. The final section concludes by discussing the multi-dimensional nature of the interrelationship between private law, environmental problems, and environmental law in more detail.

Chapter

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

Remedies are awarded only to litigants who have sufficient locus standi, or standing. The law starts from the position that remedies are correlative with rights, and that only those whose own rights are at stake are eligible to be awarded remedies. No one else will have the necessary standing before the court. This chapter discusses the old and new law of standing; discretionary power of the court to withhold remedies; exhaustion of remedies; protective and preclusive (ouster) clauses; exclusive statutory remedies; and ‘default powers’, i.e. special powers under which ministers may take steps to compel local authorities to carry out their functions properly.

Chapter

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter discusses the application for judicial review. The development of the application is complicated and intertwined with the historical deficiencies and peculiarities of the remedies themselves. Thus, the chapter begins with an account of the defects in the prerogative remedies that spurred the creation of the application. It then discusses the creation of the application for judicial review and subsequent developments; and the divorce of public and private law.

Chapter

This introductory chapter presents an overview of contract law. It discusses the definition of a contract; the problems arising in the life of a contract that must be addressed by contract law; the common law, statutory, and international sources of contract law; the nature of legal reasoning; the pluralistic values reflected in contract law that introduce tensions; the main theories on why contracts should be enforced; the reach of contract law and where contract law does not apply; contract law’s relationship to other branches of private law tort, property, and unjust enrichment; and the external influences on English contract law.

Chapter

This introductory chapter presents an overview of contract law. It discusses the questions addressed by contract law; sources of contract law and legal reasoning; values reflected in contract law; contract theory; the reach of contract law; contract law’s relationship to other branches of private law; and external influences on English contract law.

Chapter

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter begins with a discussion of public corporations, covering the uses of corporate personality, legal status and liability, and relevance in administrative law. It then describes the mechanisms of privatization and nationalization, the changing nature of regulation, and some regulatory mechanisms, including the regulation of commerce, financial services, and public utilities.

Chapter

This chapter aims to provide a rounded conception of what law is. It discusses the theoretical conceptualizations of law and the principles of the English legal system. It explains the distinction among different types of law including the distinction between criminal law and civil law, and the differences between public law and private law. The chapter also introduces several sources of law, including statute law, case law, and equity. This chapter provides the different meanings of the terms common law and civil law and clarifies that the English legal system refers to the legal system of England and Wales. The devolution of law-making powers is also discussed.

Chapter

This chapter first explains the meaning of law. It then discusses the historical development and characteristics of English law, and the different types of law (public law, private law, criminal law, and civil law). Laws are rules and regulations which govern the activities of persons within a country. In England and Wales, laws are composed of three main elements: legislation which is created through Parliament; common law; and, until the UK leaves the EU, directly enforceable EU law. This chapter also considers the terminology used for criminal prosecutions and civil actions, and outlines the legal profession in England and Wales.

Chapter

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter looks into preliminary aspect of private international law, focusing on jurisdiction and choice of law. Before enforcement actions can get off the ground we need to know which court will have jurisdiction and which law that court will apply. Jurisdiction is based on the domicile of the defendant as a basic rule, but alternative fora are available. The courts of the place of the harmful event may also have jurisdiction and there are special rules for multiple defendant cases. Validity cases are subject to exclusive jurisdiction rules. In terms of choice of law, the law of the country for which protection is sought takes centre stage when it comes to IP. It is the law applicable to the IP right as such and it also applies to infringement.

Chapter

Contracts are used to structure the legal relationship between government and private service providers. Contract also forms a new model both for relationships between public agencies and for the relationship between the government and the people it serves. The challenge for the government is to deliver services with integrity, with equity, and with efficiency. The challenge for administrative law is to provide forms of accountability that do what the law can do to promote those goals. This chapter discusses government by contract and proportionate administration, accountability and efficiency, capacity to contract, and how the law controls government contracts.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the negligence liability of public authorities. It discusses how negligence actions against public bodies may have both public and private law dimensions. The discussion of the public law dimension focuses on the mechanisms that have been employed in response to concerns about the political nature of some public authority decisions, and the fact that those decisions frequently involve the balancing of social or economic considerations, and the interests of different sections of the public. The discussion of the private law dimension of negligence actions against public bodies considers policy reasons for limiting the liability of public bodies and statutory responsibilities as a source of affirmative common law duties. The chapter concludes with a consideration of proposals for reform of the law in this area.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the rights of those wishing to take action against an infringement of competition law, potentially with a view to being compensated for the harm they may have suffered. One option is going to the relevant competition authority and filing a complaint to trigger the public enforcement route, saving the cost of litigation. The other option is to seek competition law enforcement in private claims before the courts. Claimants may seek damages or other remedies, including injunctions. In the UK, damages may be sought before the Competition Appeals Tribunal (CAT) and before the national courts. Collective claims can only be brought before the CAT. The number of private actions is increasing, and efforts have been made both by the EU and UK legislators to encourage more private litigation.

Book

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. Essential Cases provides you with succinct summaries of some of the landmark and most influential cases in equity and trusts. Each summary begins with a review of the main case facts and decision. The summary is then concluded with expert commentary on the case from the author, Derek Whayman, including his assessment of the wider questions raised by the decision.

Book

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. Essential Cases provides you with succinct summaries of some of the landmark and most influential cases in equity and trusts. Each summary begins with a review of the main case facts and decision. The summary is then concluded with expert commentary on the case from the author, Derek Whayman, including his assessment of the wider questions raised by the decision.

Chapter

Jonathan Hill

This introductory chapter begins by explaining the nature of the subject known as conflict of laws or private international law, which deals with cases before the English court which have connections with foreign countries. The foreign elements in the case may be events which have taken place in a foreign country or countries, or they may be the foreign domicile, residence, or place of business of the parties. In short, any case involving a foreign element raises potential conflict of laws issues. The conflict of laws is concerned with the following three questions: jurisdiction; choice of law; and the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. The remainder of the chapter discusses the various stages of proceedings which raise conflict of laws issues.

Chapter

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter is concerned with the remedies of private law which play a part in public law. First come the remedies related to powers (actions for damages, injunctions, declarations, and relator actions). A final section contains such remedies as private law supplies for the enforcement of duties.

Chapter

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the history and nature of international law. Rather than regulating the behaviour of individuals in their relations with one another, international law is usually portrayed as a legal framework to govern the relations between ‘States’, the organized political entities which are the primary subjects of international law. ‘Public international law’ is to be distinguished from ‘private international law’, which describes the principles that determine the applicability of a certain law or set of laws to situations involving individuals with a foreign or transboundary element. Indeed, private international law regulates the conflicts between rules of different domestic legal orders, while public international law concerns relations between States. Today, public international law has exceeded its foundations as the law of inter-State relations and operates as an integral part of the daily lives of individuals.

Chapter

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the history and nature of international law. Rather than regulating the behaviour of individuals in their relations with one another, international law is usually portrayed as a legal framework to govern the relations between ‘States’, the organized political entities which are the primary subjects of international law. ‘Public international law’ is to be distinguished from ‘private international law’, which describes the principles that determine the applicability of a certain law or set of laws to situations involving individuals with a foreign or transboundary element. Indeed, private international law regulates the conflicts between rules of different domestic legal orders, while public international law concerns relations between States. Today, public international law has exceeded its foundations as the law of inter-State relations and operates as an integral part of the daily lives of individuals.

Chapter

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter focuses on the sources of law in England & Wales, and is organised as follows. Section 2.1 describes the key jurisdictions relevant to lawyers in England and Wales. Section 2.2 deals with the issue of where the law comes from: sources of law. Section 2.3 reviews the development of the two ‘traditional’ sources of law in England and Wales: case law and statutes. Sections 2.4 and 2.5 consider the status and operation of EU and international law, including the potential effect of Brexit. Section 2.7 goes on to discuss public and private law, common law, and civil law, and other classifications used by lawyers. This is followed by a discussion of legal systems and their cultures across the world.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. This chapter discusses the effect of EU and international law. The UK is a signatory to multiple international institutions. Each of these institutions sets a framework for the UK to operate within, granting certain rights, benefits, and obligations. The most prominent institutions are the EU, the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), and the United Nations. Although the UK’s continued involvement in these institutions will have a direct impact on the operation of UK law, relations with other states, whether they be good or bad, will also shape the face of the English legal system. The chapter then studies international law, considering basic matters such as the meaning of international law, the doctrine of state sovereignty, and the distinction between public and private international law.