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Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

23. Agency  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

Agency is the relationship that exists where one person (the principal) authorizes another (the agent) to act on its behalf and the agent agrees to do so. This Chapter discusses the modes of agency creation and the different kinds of agency, and the effect of agency: (a) the relations between the principal and third parties; and (b) the relations between the agent and third parties.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

8. Relations between agent and third party  

This chapter considers the relations between the agent and third party. The typical function of an agent is to affect the legal position of his principal in relation to third parties, typically achieved by the agent effecting contractual relations between his principal and a third party or third parties. To this contract, the agent is usually a stranger and it therefore follows that, providing all parties perform their obligations, there will be no legal relations between the agent and third party, aside from any warranty of authority that might be deemed to exist. If the parties, however, fail to properly perform their obligations, legal relations between the agent and third party may arise that allow one party to sue, or be sued by, the other. This chapter discusses the general rule, and also those situations where the agent and third party will acquire a cause of action against the other.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

5. Creation of agency, and the authority of the agent  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter focuses on the creation of the principal–agent relationship and the authority of the agency and the four ways of creating it: through an express or implied agreement between the principal and the agent; under the doctrine of apparent authority; by operation of law; and through ratification of an unauthorised agent’s acts by the principal. Agency arising out of agreement will always be consensual, but it need not be contractual. After explaining how the agency relationship is created, the chapter examines the authority of the agent such as actual authority, apparent authority, and usual authority.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

7. Relations between principal and agent  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter focuses on the rights and obligations of the principal and the agent between themselves, whether arising from a contract between them or from the fiduciary nature of their relationship. However, those rights and obligations may also derive from other sources, for example tort, statute, or the law of restitution. There is detailed consideration of the duties of the agent, such as the duty of care and skill and fiduciary duties, as well as the rights relating to remuneration, reimbursement and indemnity, and lien. The chapter also discusses the ways by which agency may be terminated.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Criminal Law

7. Assistance after the offence  

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

This chapter examines the statutory offences under the Criminal Law Act 1967 of assisting an offender. Examples include hiding a principal offender, helping a principal offender to avoid arrest or to abscond from bail, lying to the police to protect the principal offender from investigation and prosecution, hiding the weapon used by the principal offender in committing the assault/robbery and washing clothes worn by the principal offender to obstruct any potential forensic examination. In addition to the fact that the offender must have committed a relevant offence, another element in the actus reus where an offender is charged with impeding the apprehension or prosecution of the offender is that the accused must have done ‘any act’ with the appropriate intent. An attempt to commit this offence does not amount to criminal liability.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

3. An introduction to the law of agency  

This chapter discusses the law of agency, which is a complex, subtle, and often misunderstood subject. Understanding it is, however, important, especially given the extent to which it can affect commercial and other areas of the law. It has also been established that, for many businesses, the use of agents is invaluable, and significant areas of commercial activity could not continue without the existence of agency. Several basic foundation issues relating to the law of agency, such as the sources of agency law and the various types of agent that exist, are discussed here. The chapter begins by determining the legal meaning of ‘agency’. Unfortunately, whilst many definitions of agency exist, the concept is ‘notoriously slippery and difficult to define’, according to Bowstead and Reynolds. The chapter also looks at the various forms of agent, including the development of the commercial agent.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

6. Relations between principal and agent  

This chapter discusses the legal relationships that exist between the principal and agent, and, in particular, focuses on the duties that each party owes to the other. The precise scope and content of these duties will depend upon a number of factors, including whether the agency is contractual or gratuitous, whether the agent is acting within the scope of his authority, whether the agent is a specific type of agent upon whom extra duties are placed, and whether the agent is a commercial agent or not. There are legal relationships that can exist between the three parties involved in a typical legal relationship, namely, the relationships between principal and agent, between principal and third party, and between agent and third party. The chapter begins by discussing the duties that an agent owes to his principal.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

7. Relations between principal and third party  

This chapter examines the relationship that exists between principal and third party, focusing in particular on the liability that exists between principal and third party, and those instances when they can sue, and be sued by, the other. Liability principally arises in contract and tort, and so these two areas of liability will be discussed, beginning with the contractual liability of the principal and third party. The contractual relationship between the principal and third party, and the extent to which one party can be liable to the other, can be complex and depends upon a number of variables, notably whether the principal is disclosed or undisclosed. In a typical agency relationship an agent will effect a contract between his principal and a third party, after which the agent will ‘drop out’ of the transaction.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

10. The Law of Agency  

This chapter begins by defining agency—the relationship which exists between the agent and the principal—and considers the legal relationships created between an agent, his principal, and a third party. It then discusses the different methods by which an agency relationship may be created. The chapter explains the extent of an agent’s authority, the power of an agent to bind his principal, and the rights and duties of an agent. The relationship between agent, principal, and third party is explored and the different rules relating to disclosed and undisclosed agencies. Finally, the termination of an agency relationship is considered and examples of different types of agencies highlighted.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

6. Relations with third parties  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter examines how contracts made by the agent affect the legal relations of the principal with regard to third parties. When considering the rights and liability arising under a contract made by an agent, it is important to draw the distinction between whether the agent was acting for a disclosed or undisclosed principal, the latter being an important feature of English agency law largely unknown to civil lawyers. This chapter discusses generally the relations between principal and third party, and between agent and third party, in the context of both disclosed and undisclosed agency.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

8. The law of agency  

This chapter examines the key provisions of the law of agency. It highlights the importance of agency for the business sector and explains that an agency is a specific form of legal relationship between two persons whereby one person appoints another person to act on his behalf. An agency can be created by express or implied agreement, through the agent’s apparent authority, and when the principal ratifies the purported agent’s act. This chapter also discusses the duties and rights of the principal and agent, and the relationships that exist between agent, principal, and third party. Finally, the chapter discusses the various ways in which a relationship of agency can be terminated.

Chapter

Cover Equity & Trusts

14. Fiduciary Obligations  

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with a definition of fiduciary relationships as presented by a retired judge of the High Court of Australia, Sir Anthony Mason. According to Mason, the relationship is a ‘concept in search of a principle’. Fiduciary relationships are voluntary, and some relationships, such as solicitor–client, are well recognized as fiduciary in nature. However, fiduciary relationships can arise in a wide variety of situations. A fiduciary owes a duty of loyalty to his or her principal, always acting in the best interests of said principal. Fiduciary obligations are strict, and any profits made by the fiduciary in breach must be disgorged to his or her principal. Where the profits are made from property that rightfully belonged to the trust, a constructive trust may be imposed upon the profits.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law

15. Complicity  

This chapter begins with a discussion of the law of complicity, covering principals and accomplices; five ways one can be an accomplice; mens rea for accomplices; secondary participation and inchoate offences; conviction of the secondary party and acquittal of the principal; whether a secondary party can be guilty of a greater offence than the principal; withdrawal by a secondary party; accessories and victims; and assistance after the offence. The second part of the chapter focuses on accessories and the theory of complicity, covering general theories of accessorial liability; theories of accessorial mens rea; the theory of joint enterprise; actus reus issues; withdrawal; and law reform.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan and Ormerod's Essentials of Criminal Law

12. Parties to crime  

David Ormerod and John Child

This chapter examines the criminal liability of parties to a crime. Where D involves herself in the crime of another, and that crime is completed, D may not just be liable for her inchoate role, but may be additionally liable as an accomplice. As such, she is labelled and punished in the same way as the principal. This chapter begins with an overview of the current law of complicity and the circumstances where uncertainty can emerge in determining whether D is a principal or an accomplice. It then considers the elements of complicity by aiding, abetting, counselling, or procuring; the abolition of complicity by joint enterprise; the relationship between complicity and inchoate liability; and available defences. It outlines options for legal reform concerning complicity and the potential application of complicity within a problem question. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

12. The creation of agency and the agent’s authority  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the creation of agency and its three main parties: the agent, the principal, and the third party. The primary purpose of the agent is to bring the principal and the third party into direct contractual relations, with the principal taking on the rights and liabilities created by the contracts, provided the agent had authority to act. The chapter looks at several kinds of agent’s authority, including actual authority, apparent authority, and usual authority, and also considers agency of necessity as well as cases where the principal may ratify a transaction.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

13. The relationships created by agency: the rights and liabilities of the parties  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the relationships created by agency, namely, the rights and liabilities of the agent, the principal, and the third party. It first explains disclosed agency as opposed to undisclosed agency with regard to the contract made by the agent, and then, after discussing the rights and liabilities of the principal and the third party, considers the rights of the agent against their principal, including remuneration, indemnity, and lien. The chapter examines the agent’s two kinds of duty to their principal (contractual duty and fiduciary duty) and discusses remedies for breach of fiduciary duty and how an agency may be terminated as well as the effects of termination. It concludes by highlighting the provisions of the Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Essentials of Criminal Law

12. Parties to crime  

This chapter examines the criminal liability of parties to a crime. Where D involves herself in the crime of another, and that crime is completed, D may not just be liable for her inchoate role, but may be additionally liable as an accomplice. As such, she is labelled and punished in the same way as the principal. This chapter begins with an overview of the current law of complicity and the circumstances where uncertainty can emerge in determining whether D is a principal or an accomplice. It then considers the elements of complicity by aiding, abetting, counselling, or procuring; the abolition of complicity by joint enterprise; the relationship between complicity and inchoate liability; and available defences. It outlines options for legal reform concerning complicity and the potential application of complicity within a problem question. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

18. Businesses and the Responsibility to Agents  

This chapter identifies agency relationships, their prevalence in business, and how the agency exists to bind the principal in contracts with third parties. It begins by defining agency as the relationship that exists between two persons when one, called the agent, is considered in law to represent the other, called the principal, in such a way as to be able to affect the principal’s legal position in respect to strangers to the relationship by the making of contracts or the disposition of property. Agencies exist in corporate organizations, sole trader, and partnership trading structures, and the law in this area applies to many relationships and is frequently seen in commercial enterprises, including high street retailers, between partners, and the directors of a corporation.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Criminal Law

6. Parties to crime  

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

A person who aids, abets, counsels or procures another to commit an offence is criminally liable and known as an ‘accessory’ or a ‘secondary party’. This chapter focuses on the basis of their liability, the distinction between accessories and principals, how secondary liability differs from inchoate liability, the principal offender, innocent agency, the accessory’s actus reus, whether an omission is sufficient and whether mere presence at the crime is enough. The chapter discusses the Supreme Court decision in Jogee, examining problems of ‘joint enterprise liability’, issues of terminology, the significance of the doctrine of joint enterprise in murder and why the Supreme Court characterized it as involving a ‘wrong turn’. It also deals with withdrawal by a secondary party before the principal offender commits the crime, victims as parties to crime and instigation by law enforcement officers for the purpose of entrapment.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law

7. Parties to crime  

Michael J. Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and contextual, Criminal Law provides a succinct overview of the key areas on the law curriculum balanced with thought-provoking contextual discussion. This chapter discusses the meaning of accomplices, vicarious liability, joint enterprise liability, and corporate liability. All the parties to a crime are accomplices. The person who perpetrates the crime is the principal. Others, not being principals, who participate in the commission of an offence are referred to as accessories or secondary parties and will be liable to conviction if it is proved that they aided, abetted, counselled, or procured the commission of the crime by the principal. Vicarious liability is a form of strict liability arising from the employer–employee relationship, without reference to any fault of the employer. A corporation is a legal person and therefore may be criminally liable, even though it has no physical existence and cannot act or think except through its directors or employees.