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Chapter

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment

6. Family Friendly Rights  

This chapter considers various family-friendly rights designed to assist employees with parental and childcare responsibilities. These are rights such as maternity leave, including ordinary and additional maternity leave, shared parental leave, ordinary and additional adoption leave, keeping in touch days, parental leave, paternity leave, caring for dependants, and applications for flexible working. The chapter also considers which of these types of leave are paid, and if so, how much. A number of these statutory rights and relevant statutory provisions are based on the implementation of a number of EU Directives, and to that extent EU jurisprudence must be considered where appropriate.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Family Law

8. Parenthood and Parental Responsibility  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. This chapter focuses on legal parenthood and parental responsibility and contains two essay questions and two problem questions. The topics covered in this chapter are: presumptions of paternity and paternity tests; legal parenthood in assisted reproduction situations; the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008; legal parenthood in surrogacy situations; and parental responsibility. The topics covered in this chapter are complex as they raise legal, ethical, and moral issues.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

14. Moral rights  

This chapter explains the moral rights of the author in a copyright context. Moral rights emphasize the strong link between the work and its author. That link prevails regardless of the how the commercial exploitation of the work takes place. There are two core moral rights. First, there is the right to be identified, or the paternity right. This applies traditionally to literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic works, but it has been expanded to include films and performances. Second, there is the right of integrity, or the right to object to derogatory treatment of the work. This protects the reputation of the author, which again also has its value for users of the work. The discussion also includes the right against false attribution of the work; the right to privacy in relation to commissioned photographs; and consent and waiver.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

6. Parental rights  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the law on parental rights. Topics covered include maternity leave, parental leave, time off for dependants, the right to request flexible working, and the new right of parents to bereavement leave. The right to shared parental leave (SPL) is singled out for detailed treatment, partly because it is fairly new, and partly because, some would say, it exemplifies an old-fashioned approach to sex equality when caring for newborns. The option as to whether her partner can share in SPL is for the mother to decide; the mother may receive (by contract) enhanced maternity pay, but there is no enhanced SPL. The effect is to reinforce the mother’s staying at home because if she goes back to work, the family will lose most of the partner’s income because the rate of pay for SPL is low, around £151 a week. The latter point is arguably sex discrimination, and, during the currency of this book, the Employment Appeal Tribunal will decide this issue (at the time of writing employment tribunals are split).

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

6. Moral rights  

This chapter assesses moral rights. From a human rights perspective, the distinction between economic and moral rights can be traced back to Art. 27(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The protection of the moral interests of the authors finds justification not only in the context of human rights but also under a special set of copyright rules that offer protection to non-pecuniary interests of the authors. The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CPDA) recognises four main moral rights: the right to be identified as the author or director of a work (this is the so-called paternity right); the right to object to derogatory treatment of a work (the so-called integrity right); the right to object to a false attribution of authorship in the case of a literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic work or a film; and the right of privacy in commissioned photographs and films.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Concentrate

4. Moral rights  

There are two different types of rights labelled as ‘moral rights’ in the CDPA: rights for authors referred to as the rights of paternity and integrity; and other rights of all individuals: the right not to be falsely attributed as author of a work; and a right of privacy in privately commissioned photographs and films. These protect non-commercial aspects of the relationship between authors and their works. Thus, they cannot be assigned, and may be enforced even after the author has assigned or licensed their economic rights, and even against the owner or licensee. The rights last as long as copyright does and pass to the author’s beneficiaries on death. Different countries have implemented the Berne rights in different ways. Authors’ moral rights were introduced in 1988 to implement the Berne Convention; the UK does not protect them as fully as other countries, particularly civil law countries.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

9. Work–Life Balance  

This chapter analyses the statutory employment ‘family-friendly’ rights contained in the Employment Rights Act 1996 and the subordinate legislation which has a bearing on the work–life balance of employees, workers, and other individuals providing personal services. These include the protection of pregnant workers, and the statutory arrangements for maternity leave and maternity pay. It also examines family-friendly measures which seek to achieve a more equal division of family responsibilities between couples, such as the statutory rights to shared parental leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, and parental leave, as well as the rights to request flexible working and to take time off work to deal with dependants.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

10. Moral Rights  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter focuses on moral rights conferred by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 on the authors of certain works to protect their non-pecuniary or non-economic interests. It begins by describing the nature of and rationales for grant of moral rights as well as a number of criticisms made about such rights. This is followed by a detailed consideration of the moral right of attribution or right of paternity, the right to object to false attribution, and the right of integrity. This discussion identifies when such rights arise (including the requirement of assertion of the attribution right), when the moral rights are infringed, and exceptions to such rights. The chapter also considers how far such rights can be waived.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

20. Family-friendly statutes  

This chapter looks at ‘family-friendly employment laws’ and breaks each down into its component parts. It also considers whether it is appropriate that the statute book should reflect a commitment to a ‘work-life balance’, or whether this kind of legislation in fact ignores the needs of business and therefore has a deleterious effect on the economy. It begins with a background on ‘family-friendly’ legislation. It then discusses ante-natal care, health and safety issues, maternity leave, maternity pay, paternity leave, shared parental leave, adoption leave, parental leave, time off for dependants, the right to request flexible working, the right to request time off for training and the impact of family-friendly legislation.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

26. Employment rights, and health and safety  

This chapter examines the employment rights provided by law to employees and workers. It explains that aside from the rights contained in the employment contract, the law provides employees with a number of free-standing rights. These include the right to a national minimum wage, rules relating to the transfer of undertakings, and the numerous family-related rights (for example, maternity and paternity leave/pay, adoption leave/pay, and shared parental leave/pay. This chapter also discusses the mandate for employers to protect the health and safety of their employees and the key provisions of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and the Working Time Regulations 1998.