1-8 of 8 Results

  • Keyword: organized crime x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

14. Global criminology 2  

Transnational criminology

Sacha Darke

This chapter highlights instances of crime and justice that cross national borders. The chapter is therefore concerned with how global economic, social, and political connections facilitate the organisation of crime and the coordination of justice. The chapter begins by outlining the scope of transnational criminology, looking at the theoretical concepts it employs and its defining characteristics. It then explores some of its major areas of research interest: state terror, drug trafficking, people smuggling, the trade in and dumping of toxic waste, and cybercrime. Finally, the chapter addresses two of the most prominent academic debates within and associated with transnational criminology: the extent to which transnational crime is hierarchical and organised, and the means by which the international community might best police it.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

7. Urban criminal collaborations  

Alistair Fraser and Dick Hobbs

This chapter examines a range of criminological classifications for urban criminal groups, covering both youthful and adult-oriented collaborations. The chapter provides a critical overview of the following categorizations: gangs; subcultures; professional crime; the underworld; and organized crime. Debates relating to each are introduced. While criminological approaches to youthful groups have a clear history, from the ‘Chicago School’ to the ‘Birmingham School’, perspectives on adult groups are less solid and more interdisciplinary. In both cases, the chapter argues that criminological classifications have struggled to capture the complexities brought on by the changing nature of the urban political economy. The chapter concludes by introducing a critical perspective that problematizes criminological categorizations of urban criminal collaborations.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

26. Urban criminal collaborations  

Alistair Fraser and Dick Hobbs

This chapter examines a range of criminological classifications for urban criminal groups, covering both youthful and adult-oriented collaborations. The chapter provides a critical overview of the following categorizations: gangs; subcultures; neighbourhood crime groups; professional crime; the underworld; and organized crime. Debates relating to each are introduced. While criminological approaches to youthful groups have a clear history, from the ‘Chicago School’ to the ‘Birmingham School’, perspectives on adult groups are less solid and more interdisciplinary. In both cases, the chapter argues that criminological classifications have struggled to capture the complexities brought on by the changing nature of the urban political economy. The chapter concludes by introducing a critical perspective that problematizes criminological categorizations of urban criminal collaborations.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

24. Green criminology  

Avi Brisman and Nigel South

Criminology must maintain relevance in a changing world and engage with new challenges. Perhaps pre-eminent among those facing the planet today are threats to the natural environment and, by extension, to human health and rights and to other species. A green criminology has emerged as a (now well-established) criminological perspective that addresses a wide range of crimes, harms and offences related to the environment and environmental victims. This chapter provides a review of green criminological work on climate change, consumption and waste, state-corporate and organized crimes, animal abuse, and wildlife trafficking. It also considers the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to regulation, enforcement and control.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

13. Contagion and connections: Applying network thinking to violence and organized crime  

Paolo Campana

This chapter looks into the application of network thinking to violence and organized crime. The COVID-19 global pandemic showcased how connections matter and far-reaching consequences for the life and well-being of individuals and communities. Infectious pathogens exploit the web of social relations to increase their spread across individuals and places, which then results in the emergence of epidemics. Criminology has been slow to adopt social network analysis, but it does elucidate the mechanisms concerning violence and co-offending that involve gangs and organized crime. The chapter explains that relations and individual characteristics do not need to be treated in opposition to each other, but can be modelled and explored jointly.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

36. Criminology, punishment, and the state in a globalized society  

Katja Franko

Questions of criminal law and criminal justice are increasingly becoming international, overcoming the confines of traditional jurisdictional constraints. This chapter traces these developments in order to examine what relevance criminology has had and may hold for understanding contemporary global issues. It examines, among other things, the impact of global interconnectedness on the nature of state sovereignty, particularly in light of challenges such as international terrorism, irregular migration, and transnational organized crime. By doing so, the chapter does not simply chart a demise of the state, as is sometimes assumed within studies of globalization. Instead, it proposes a more subtle, analytical, and imaginary disconnection between crime, penality, and the nation state. Finally, the chapter addresses the rise of international forms of justice, particularly those articulated through human rights regimes, as well as the emerging challenges to them.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

15. Criminology, punishment, and the state in a globalized society  

Katja Franko

Questions of criminal law and criminal justice are increasingly becoming international, overcoming the confines of traditional jurisdictional constraints. This chapter traces these developments in order to examine what relevance criminology has had and may hold for understanding contemporary global issues. It examines, among other things, the impact of global interconnectedness on the nature of state sovereignty, particularly in light of challenges such as international terrorism, irregular migration, and transnational organized crime. By doing so, the chapter does not simply chart a demise of the state, as is sometimes assumed within studies of globalization. Instead, it proposes a more subtle, analytical and imaginary disconnection between crime, penality, and the nation state. Finally, the chapter addresses the rise of international forms of justice, particularly those articulated through human rights regimes, as well as the emerging challenges to them.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

14. Green criminology  

Avi Brisman and Nigel South

Criminology must maintain relevance in a changing world and engage with new challenges. Perhaps pre-eminent among those facing the planet today are threats to the natural environment and, by extension, to human health and rights and to other species. A green criminology has emerged as a (now well established) criminological perspective that addresses a wide range of harms, offences, and crimes related to the environment and environmental victims. This chapter provides a review of green criminological work on climate change, consumption and waste, state-corporate and organized crimes, animal abuse, and wildlife trafficking. It also considers the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to regulation and control.