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Chapter

Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract

2. Objectivity in contract law  

This chapter provides an overview of the concept of objectivity. In contract law, the intentions of parties are generally judged by their words and conduct and their ‘objective’ meaning. This is known as the ‘objective test’. The contents of a contract are determined objectively. The best evidence that a term has been incorporated into a contract and that a contract is binding is through the parties’ signatures, although entirely oral contracts are equally possible. Contractual communications, whether oral or written, are generally to be understood in the way that a reasonable person in the position of the recipient would have understood them.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Criminal Law

4. Crimes of negligence  

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

Negligence refers to conduct that does not conform to what would be expected of a reasonable person. Along with intention and recklessness, negligence involves a failure to comply with an objective standard of conduct; that is, all of them are forms of fault. To prove negligence, the prosecution is not required to show that the accused failed to foresee a relevant risk; it only has to establish that his conduct failed to comply with a reasonable standard. A person is negligent if he is not able to comply with an objective standard of behaviour set by the law. This chapter deals with crimes of negligence and negligence as mens rea, negligence as the basis of liability, degrees of negligence, negligence as a form of culpable fault, and negligence and capacity.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

FSHC Group Holdings Ltd v GLAS Trust Corp [2019] EWCA Civ 1361, Court of Appeal  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in FSHC Group Holdings Ltd v GLAS Trust Corp Ltd [2019] EWCA Civ 1361, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

FSHC Group Holdings Ltd v GLAS Trust Corp [2019] EWCA Civ 1361, Court of Appeal  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in FSHC Group Holdings Ltd v GLAS Trust Corp Ltd [2019] EWCA Civ 1361, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

4. Liability for Fault: Breach  

This chapter examines the principal element of the cause of action in negligence, namely breach of duty. The issue of breach of duty is concerned with whether the defendant was careless, in the sense of failing to conform to the standard of care applicable to him. The discussions cover the concept of breach of duty; the objective standard; professional and regulatory standards; updating of standards in the light of new information; the role of cost-benefit analysis and the ‘Learned Hand’ test; weighing the risk and gravity of harm against the cost of prevention; and proof of carelessness, including discussion of the res ipsa loquitur principle.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

2. Agreement: Objective or Subjective?  

This chapter discusses the approach adopted by the courts when seeking to ascertain the intention of the parties to a contract. The general rule is that the existence and content of an agreement are questions that must be answered by reference to the intention of the parties, objectively ascertained. Two leading cases are presented that consider the scope of the objective test, namely Smith v. Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 and Centrovincial Estates plc v. Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158. The discussion then turns to the case where one party attempts to ‘snap up’ an offer which he knew that the offeror did not intend, and the case where one party was at fault in failing to notice that the other party’s offer contained a mistake, or he was himself responsible for inducing that mistake in the other party. The chapter concludes that it is not necessary to resort to a subjective approach in order to explain these cases; they can be analysed in terms consistent with the objective test which is generally applied by the courts.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

2. Agreement  

How does contract law determine whether the parties have committed to the contract and what each has committed to? This chapter discusses: the primacy of the objective test of intentions; the offer and acceptance test of agreement and what happens when one party appears to be mistaken about what is in the contract; when an offer is terminated so that any purported acceptance is ineffectual; assessment of the mirror image approach; the requirement of certainty; the nature of the requirement of intention to create legal relations; and the law’s approach to the benefits conferred in anticipation of contracts that do not materialise.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

2. Agreement  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. A contract requires that the parties reach an agreement which normally consists of a matching offer and acceptance. This chapter discusses the following: the objective test of agreement; identifying an offer and acceptance; rejection, counter-offers and inquiries; communication of acceptance including the postal rule and the contrasting rule for revocation; mode of acceptance; the death of an offer; and unilateral contracts.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 includes commentary on Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 including commentary on Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v Tan [1995] 2 AC 378, Privy Council  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v Tan [1995] 2 AC 378, Privy Council. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 includes commentary on Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 including commentary on Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v Tan [1995] 2 AC 378, Privy Council  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v Tan [1995] 2 AC 378, Privy Council. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

4. Infringement of copyright  

This chapter focuses on the two types of copyright infringement within the CDPA 1988: primary infringement and secondary infringement. In primary infringement, the defendants are directly involved in copying, performing, and issuing to the public the copyright work, whereas secondary infringement involves people who deal with infringing copies, or facilitate such copying or other activities that are restricted by copyright. Besides this difference that has to do with the scope of rights, there is also difference on the mental element. Unlike primary infringement that does not require knowledge or intention to infringe on the part of the alleged infringer and is hence subject to strict liability, secondary infringement occurs where the defendant knew or had reason to believe that activities in question are wrongful. This is assessed on the basis of an objective test, namely what matters is what a reasonable person would have thought in the relevant circumstances.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

2. Agreement  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. A contract requires that the parties reach an agreement which normally consists of a matching offer and acceptance. This chapter discusses the following: the objective test of agreement; identifying an offer and acceptance; rejection, counter-offers and inquiries; communication of acceptance including the postal rule and the contrasting rule for revocation; mode of acceptance; the death of an offer; and unilateral contracts.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

4. Overriding Objective and Human Rights  

This chapter discusses the sources of procedural law, the general principles relevant to civil procedure established by the overriding objective, the European Convention on Human Rights, and some rules on how the courts approach construing the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR). The CPR and practice directions (PDs) are the procedural rules governing civil proceedings. The most important rule is the ‘overriding objective’ of dealing with claims justly and at proportionate cost. The most important Convention rights in civil litigation are the right to a fair trial, the right to respect for private and family life, and the right to freedom of expression.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

5. Article 102  

This chapter discusses the main features of Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), which is concerned with the abusive conduct of dominant firms. It begins by introducing the European Commission’s Guidance on the Commission’s enforcement priorities in applying Article [102 TFEU] to abusive exclusionary conduct by dominant undertakings. It then discusses the concept of undertaking, the requirement of an effect on trade between Member States, the concept of a dominant position and the requirement that any dominant position must be held in a substantial part of the internal market. The chapter also considers the meaning of abuse of a dominant position, which is a complex and controversial issue. A discussion of the defences to allegations of abuse is followed by a brief look at the consequences of infringing Article 102.

Chapter

Cover O'Sullivan & Hilliard's The Law of Contract

2. Offer and acceptance I: general principles  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines the general principles of the offer and acceptance requirement in the law of contract. It explains that an offer is an indication of one party’s willingness to enter into a contract with the party to whom it is addressed as soon as the latter accepts its terms while an acceptance is an agreement to the terms of the offer. It discusses the distinction between unilateral and bilateral contracts and introduces the principle of objectivity in contractual formation. This chapter also considers the communication of the acceptance, the prescribed modes of acceptance, and the termination of an offer.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

2. Agreement  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. A contract is a legally enforceable agreement. This chapter explains how the existence of an agreement is determined. After considering how the courts assess whether an agreement has been, using subjective and objective methods, it discusses the precise criteria used to determine agreement, namely offer and acceptance. The chapter defines offers and distinguishes them from invitations to treat. It focuses on identifying acceptances and distinguishing acceptances from responses which are not a mirror image of the offer, such as counter-offers. Much emphasis is placed on explaining the communication principles applicable to acceptances—postal and instantaneous communications, including email. The chapter explains revocations of offers and the communication principles applicable to revocations. The courts will enforce an agreement only if it is sufficiently certain in its terms. This chapter therefore considers how the courts deal with vagueness and incompleteness, including agreements to agree and whether there can ever be a duty to negotiate in good faith. It also examines the position where there is no contract due to uncertainty, but there has been performance. Finally, the chapter distinguishes bilateral and unilateral contracts and the special principles applicable to unilateral contracts.