1-8 of 8 Results

  • Keyword: objective test x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract

2. Objectivity in contract law  

This chapter provides an overview of the concept of objectivity. In contract law, the intentions of parties are generally judged by their words and conduct and their ‘objective’ meaning. This is known as the ‘objective test’. The contents of a contract are determined objectively. The best evidence that a term has been incorporated into a contract and that a contract is binding is through the parties’ signatures, although entirely oral contracts are equally possible. Contractual communications, whether oral or written, are generally to be understood in the way that a reasonable person in the position of the recipient would have understood them.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

2. Agreement  

How does contract law determine whether the parties have committed to the contract and what each has committed to? This chapter discusses: the primacy of the objective test of intentions; the offer and acceptance test of agreement and what happens when one party appears to be mistaken about what is in the contract; when an offer is terminated so that any purported acceptance is ineffectual; assessment of the mirror image approach; the requirement of certainty; the nature of the requirement of intention to create legal relations; and the law’s approach to the benefits conferred in anticipation of contracts that do not materialise.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 includes commentary on Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 including commentary on Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 includes commentary on Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 including commentary on Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Investors Assurance Company Ltd [1983] Com LR 158. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

4. Infringement of copyright  

This chapter focuses on the two types of copyright infringement within the CDPA 1988: primary infringement and secondary infringement. In primary infringement, the defendants are directly involved in copying, performing, and issuing to the public the copyright work, whereas secondary infringement involves people who deal with infringing copies, or facilitate such copying or other activities that are restricted by copyright. Besides this difference that has to do with the scope of rights, there is also difference on the mental element. Unlike primary infringement that does not require knowledge or intention to infringe on the part of the alleged infringer and is hence subject to strict liability, secondary infringement occurs where the defendant knew or had reason to believe that activities in question are wrongful. This is assessed on the basis of an objective test, namely what matters is what a reasonable person would have thought in the relevant circumstances.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

18. Abuse of dominance (2): pricing practices  

This chapter considers abusive pricing practices under Article 102 TFEU and the Chapter II prohibition in the Competition Act 1998. It first discusses various cost concepts used in determining whether a price is abusive. It then deals in turn with excessive pricing; conditional rebates; bundling; predatory pricing; margin squeeze; price discrimination; and practices that are harmful to the single market. This taxonomy is over-schematic, in that the categories overlap with one another: for example price discrimination may be both exploitative and exclusionary, and an excessively high price may in reality be a way of preventing parallel imports or of excluding a competitor from the market; nevertheless this division may provide helpful insights into the way in which the law is applied in practice. In each section the application of Article 102 by the European Commission and by the EU Courts will be considered first, followed by cases in the UK. Reference will be made where appropriate to the Commission’s Guidance on the Commission’s Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article [102 TFEU] to Abusive Exclusionary Conduct by Dominant Undertakings.